Why nonviolent resistance beats violent force in effecting social, political change (2023)

Why nonviolent resistance beats violent force in effecting social, political change (1)

Erica Chenoweth discovers it is more successful in effecting change than violent campaigns

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Recent research suggests that nonviolent civil resistance is far more successful in creating broad-based change than violent campaigns are, a somewhat surprising finding with a story behind it.

When Erica Chenowethstarted her predoctoral fellowship at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs in 2006, she believed in the strategic logic of armed resistance. She had studied terrorism, civil war, and major revolutions — Russian, French, Algerian, and American — and suspected that only violent force had achieved major social and political change. But then a workshop led her to consider proving that violent resistance was more successful than the nonviolent kind. Since the question had never been addressed systematically, she and colleague Maria J. Stephan began a research project.

For the next two years, Chenoweth and Stephan collected data on all violent and nonviolent campaigns from 1900 to 2006 that resulted in the overthrow of a government or in territorial liberation. They created a data set of 323 mass actions. Chenoweth analyzed nearly 160 variables related to success criteria, participant categories, state capacity, and more. The results turned her earlier paradigm on its head — in the aggregate, nonviolent civil resistance was far more effective in producing change.

The Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (WCFIA) sat down with Chenoweth, a new faculty associate who returned to the Harvard Kennedy School this year as professor of public policy, and asked her to explain her findings and share her goals for future research. Chenoweth is also the Susan S. and Kenneth L. Wallach Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.

Q&A

Erica Chenoweth

WCFIA: In your co-authored book, “Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict,” you explain clearly why civil resistance campaigns attract more absolute numbers of people — in part it’s because there’s a much lower barrier to participation compared with picking up a weapon. Based on the cases you have studied, what are the key elements necessary for a successful nonviolent campaign?

CHENOWETH: I think it really boils down to four different things. The first is a large and diverse participation that’s sustained.

The second thing is that [the movement] needs to elicit loyalty shifts among security forces in particular, but also other elites. Security forces are important because they ultimately are the agents of repression, and their actions largely decide how violent the confrontation with — and reaction to — the nonviolent campaign is going to be in the end. But there are other security elites, economic and business elites, state media. There are lots of different pillars that support the status quo, and if they can be disrupted or coerced into noncooperation, then that’s a decisive factor.

The third thing is that the campaigns need to be able to have more than just protests; there needs to be a lot of variation in the methods they use.

The fourth thing is that when campaigns are repressed — which is basically inevitable for those calling for major changes — they don’t either descend into chaos or opt for using violence themselves. If campaigns allow their repression to throw the movement into total disarray or they use it as a pretext to militarize their campaign, then they’re essentially co-signing what the regime wants — for the resisters to play on its own playing field. And they’re probably going to get totally crushed.

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Why nonviolent resistance beats violent force in effecting social, political change (7)

WCFIA:Is there any way to resist or protest without making yourself more vulnerable?

CHENOWETH: People have done things like bang pots and pans or go on electricity strikes or something otherwise disruptive that imposes costs on the regime even while people aren’t outside. Staying inside for an extended period equates to a general strike. Even limited strikes are very effective. There were limited and general strikes in Tunisia and Egypt during their uprisings and they were critical.

WCFIA: A general strike seems like a personally costly way to protest, especially if you just stop working or stop buying things. Why are they effective?

CHENOWETH: This is why preparation is so essential. Where campaigns have used strikes or economic noncooperation successfully, they’ve often spent months preparing by stockpiling food, coming up with strike funds, or finding ways to engage in community mutual aid while the strike is underway. One good example of that comes from South Africa. The anti-apartheid movement organized a total boycott of white businesses, which meant that black community members were still going to work and getting a paycheck from white businesses but were not buying their products. Several months of that and the white business elites were in total crisis. They demanded that the apartheid government do something to alleviate the economic strain. With the rise of the reformist Frederik Willem de Klerk within the ruling party, South African leader P.W. Botha resigned. De Klerk was installed as president in 1989, leading to negotiations with the African National Congress [ANC] and then to free elections, where the ANC won overwhelmingly. The reason I bring the case up is because organizers in the black townships had to prepare for the long term by making sure that there were plenty of food and necessities internally to get people by, and that there were provisions for things like Christmas gifts and holidays.

(Video) On Violence and Protests

WCFIA: How important is the overall number of participants in a nonviolent campaign?

CHENOWETH: One of the things that isn’t in our book, but that I analyzed later and presented in a TEDx Boulder talk in 2013, is that a surprisingly small proportion of the population guarantees a successful campaign: just 3.5 percent. That sounds like a really small number, but in absolute terms it’s really an impressive number of people. In the U.S., it would be around 11.5 million people today. Could you imagine if 11.5 million people — that’s about three times the size of the 2017 Women’s March — were doing something like mass noncooperation in a sustained way for nine to 18 months? Things would be totally different in this country.

WCFIA:Is there anything about our current time that dictates the need for a change in tactics?

CHENOWETH: Mobilizing without a long-term strategy or plan seems to be happening a lot right now, and that’s not what’s worked in the past. However, there’s nothing about the age we’re in that undermines the basic principles of success. I don’t think that the factors that influence success or failure are fundamentally different. Part of the reason I say that is because they’re basically the same things we observed when Gandhi was organizing in India as we do today. There are just some characteristics of our age that complicate things a bit.

WCFIA: You make the surprising claim that even when they fail, civil resistance campaigns often lead to longer-term reforms than violent campaigns do. How does that work?

CHENOWETH: The finding is that civil resistance campaigns often lead to longer-term reforms and changes that bring about democratization compared with violent campaigns. Countries in which there were nonviolent campaigns were about 10 times likelier to transition to democracies within a five-year period compared to countries in which there were violent campaigns — whether the campaigns succeeded or failed. This is because even though they “failed” in the short term, the nonviolent campaigns tended to empower moderates or reformers within the ruling elites who gradually began to initiate changes and liberalize the polity.

One of the best examples of this is the Kefaya movement in the early 2000s in Egypt. Although it failed in the short term, the experiences of different activists during that movement surely informed the ability to effectively organize during the 2011 uprisings in Egypt. Another example is the 2007 Saffron Revolution in Myanmar, which was brutally suppressed at the time but which ultimately led to voluntary democratic reforms by the government by 2012. Of course, this doesn’t mean that nonviolent campaigns always lead to democracies — or even that democracy is a cure-all for political strife. As we know, in Myanmar, relative democratization in the country’s institutions has been accompanied by extreme violence against the Rohingya community there. But it’s important to note that such cases are the exceptions rather than the norm. And democratization processes tend to be much bumpier when they occur after large-scale armed conflict instead of civil resistance campaigns, as was the case in Myanmar.

WCFIA:What are your current projects?

CHENOWETH: I’m still collecting data on nonviolent campaigns around the world. And I’m also collecting data on the nonviolent actions that are happening every day in the United States through a project called the Crowd Counting Consortium, with Jeremy Pressman of the University of Connecticut. It began in 2017, when Jeremy and I were collecting data during the Women’s March. Someone tweeted a link to our spreadsheet, and then we got tons of emails overnight from people writing in to say, “Oh, your number in Portland is too low; our protest hasn’t made the newspapers yet, but we had this many people.” There were the most incredible appeals. There was a nursing home in Encinitas, Calif., where 50 octogenarians organized an indoor women’s march with their granddaughters. Their local news had shot a video of them and they asked to be counted, and we put them in the sheet. People are very active and it’s not part of the broader public discourse about where we are as a country. I think it’s important to tell that story.

(Video) Is Violence Inevitable?: Why Civil Resistance Works - Erica Chenoweth

This originally appeared on the Weatherhead Center website. Part two of the series is now online.

The artwork, “Love and Revolution,” revolutionary graffiti at Saleh Selim Street on the island of Zamalek, Cairo, was photographed by Hossam el-Hamalawy on Oct. 23, 2011.

FAQs

Why was nonviolent resistance so important? ›

It is a force for transformation, justice, and the well-being of all that is neither violent nor passive. It is a powerful method for challenging and overcoming violence without using violence; for creatively transforming and resolving conflict; and for fostering just and peaceful alternatives.

What is the main goal of nonviolent protest and resistance? ›

The goal of nonviolent resistance is not to defeat anyone, but to create friendship and understanding. Instead of destroying the opponent, the nonviolent resister tries “to awaken a sense of moral shame… The end is redemption and reconciliation.

What does Martin Luther King mean by nonviolent resistance and what would be an example of that? ›

Fifth, nonviolent resistance avoids “external physical violence” and “internal violence of spirit” as well: “The nonviolent resister not only refuses to shoot his opponent but he also refuses to hate him” (King, Stride, 85).

Is it still possible to use non violence to change the society? ›

Non-violence can be applied personally as a way of life, or collectively as a method of transforming conflict and building societies of peace. In their quest for social change, practitioners of non-violence use diverse and creative methods.

What is nonviolent resistance short definition? ›

Nonviolent resistance is a method of struggle in which unarmed people confront an adversary by using collective action—including protests, demonstrations, strikes, and noncooperation—to build power and achieve political goals.

Which is more effective violent or nonviolent protest? ›

Prominent research argues that nonviolent protest is the most effective method for social movements to pursue causes, but the reality is more complicated.

What are some examples of nonviolent resistance? ›

Tactics include protests, boycotts, sit-ins, civil disobedience and alternative institutions. Nonviolent resistance has been shown empirically to be twice as effective as armed struggle in achieving major political goals.

Is non violence more effective? ›

Violent campaigns have fared much worse, in terms of absolute rates of success, than nonviolent campaigns since 1960. In fact, in the aggregate, from 1900 to 2015, nonviolent campaigns succeeded 51 percent of the time, whereas violent campaigns succeeded 27 percent of the time.

What is the first principle of non violent resistant? ›

Principle one: Nonviolence is a way of life for courageous people. It is active nonviolent resistance to evil. It is aggressive spiritually, mentally and emotionally. Principle two: Nonviolence seeks to win friendship and understanding.

Which is better violence or nonviolence? ›

There is a positive lesson here, that nonviolence works – at least better than violence. This builds on Chenoweth's earlier study, which suggested that between 2000 and 2006, 70% of nonviolent campaigns succeeded, five times the success rate for violent ones.

What are the nonviolent principles and why is it important for us understand them? ›

Nonviolence holds that voluntary suffering can educate and transform. Nonviolence willingly accepts the consequences of its acts. Nonviolence accepts suffering without retaliation. Nonviolence accepts violence if necessary, but will never inflict it.

What is the goal of nonviolent action? ›

Strategic nonviolent action is a powerful way for people to fight for their rights, freedom, justice, and self-determination without resorting to violence. It can be carried out through tactics such as strikes, boycotts, mass protests and various forms of non-cooperation.

How important is a non violent struggle in achieving positive social change? ›

“Countries in which there were nonviolent campaigns were about 10 times likelier to transition to democracies within a five-year period compared to countries in which there were violent campaigns — whether the campaigns succeeded or failed.”

Which problems have been solved by non violent means? ›

Ans. By non-violence means the problem of evil, anger and hatred have been solved.

How Non-violence is a powerful weapon? ›

Non-violence is a weapon of the strong. Non-violence and truth are inseparable and presuppose one another. We may never be strong enough to be entirely nonviolent in thought, word and deed. But we must keep nonviolence as our goal and make strong progress towards it.

Can you think of an example of nonviolent resistance? ›

Tactics of nonviolent resistance, such as bus boycotts, Freedom Rides, sit-ins, marches, and mass demonstrations, were used during the Civil Rights Movement.

What is a sentence for nonviolent resistance? ›

Nevertheless, he continued to wage a nonviolent resistance through his songs.

What is another word for nonviolent resistance? ›

What is another word for nonviolent resistance?
passive resistancecivil disobedience
nonresistanceprotest march
resistance movementnoncooperation
protest

What are the advantages of nonviolent protest? ›

These pros include: Accessibility: Nonviolent protests can be attended by more people than other kinds of protests. More people are likely to feel safe and comfortable attending the protest, and individual protesters are less likely to require any specific kind of training or information.

Is violence acceptable for social change? ›

This is strong evidence that violence is not an effective means of social change in representative systems. In many campaigns in representative systems, violence is used to a limited degree or not at all: it is hard to find an issue in which violence was a crucial tool in bringing about change.

Does non violence serve any positive goal give appropriate reasons and examples? ›

The believer in nonviolence shares with many others the goal of a decent, just and equitable society. He wants to see an end to injustice, tyranny, corruption, and the exploitation of men by their fellows.

What are the advantages of nonviolent protest? ›

These pros include: Accessibility: Nonviolent protests can be attended by more people than other kinds of protests. More people are likely to feel safe and comfortable attending the protest, and individual protesters are less likely to require any specific kind of training or information.

What made nonviolent protests effective during the Civil Rights Movement? ›

A major factor in the success of the movement was the strategy of protesting for equal rights without using violence. Civil rights leader Rev. Martin Luther King championed this approach as an alternative to armed uprising. King's non-violent movement was inspired by the teachings of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi.

Are nonviolent protests effective? ›

Nonviolent resistance has been shown empirically to be twice as effective as armed struggle in achieving major political goals.

How did violence affect the Civil Rights Movement? ›

This campaign of terror persisted during the Civil Rights Movement. Courageous activists were subjected to threats, mass arrests, beatings, church bombings, and murder. The criminal justice system turned a blind eye to the terrorism, often refusing to protect activists or prosecute perpetrators.

Is non violence more effective? ›

Violent campaigns have fared much worse, in terms of absolute rates of success, than nonviolent campaigns since 1960. In fact, in the aggregate, from 1900 to 2015, nonviolent campaigns succeeded 51 percent of the time, whereas violent campaigns succeeded 27 percent of the time.

What are the effects of non violence? ›

Gandhian nonviolence has affected global culture in four ways. First, it changed for the better aspects of the political culture of particular countries. In India, for example, it influenced the manner in which colonialism was brought to an end and a new political philosophy introduced.

Does non violence serve any positive goal give appropriate reasons and examples? ›

The believer in nonviolence shares with many others the goal of a decent, just and equitable society. He wants to see an end to injustice, tyranny, corruption, and the exploitation of men by their fellows.

What is the goal of non violence? ›

The purpose of nonviolence is the creation of the Beloved Community. Principle three: Nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice, not people. Nonviolence recognises that evildoers are also victims and are not evil people. The nonviolent resister seeks to defeat evil, not people.

What was the purpose of nonviolent direct action? ›

“Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored.”

Which is better violence or nonviolence? ›

There is a positive lesson here, that nonviolence works – at least better than violence. This builds on Chenoweth's earlier study, which suggested that between 2000 and 2006, 70% of nonviolent campaigns succeeded, five times the success rate for violent ones.

Why are nonviolent protests more effective than violent protests? ›

“There's certainly more evidence that peaceful protests are more successful because they build a wider coalition,” says Gordana Rabrenovic, associate professor of sociology and director of the Brudnick Center on Violence and Conflict.

Can you think of an example of nonviolent resistance? ›

Tactics of nonviolent resistance, such as bus boycotts, Freedom Rides, sit-ins, marches, and mass demonstrations, were used during the Civil Rights Movement.

Which problems have been solved by non violent means? ›

Ans. By non-violence means the problem of evil, anger and hatred have been solved.

What does it mean to meet violence with nonviolence what would it look like? ›

What would it look like? Meeting violence with nonviolence is not being passive but being actively engaged with peace and nonviolent behaviors. These might mean allowing perpetrators to be violent and then not respond so that their acts of violence indict and incriminate them.

What is an example of a violent protest? ›

Examples of violent protests include the Watts Riots, the Black Panther takeover of the California legislature, among others. The two MLK groups will confer together, as will the two Malcolm X groups. They will compare notes in preparation for a controlled discussion with their opposite minded groups.

What forms of protest were used during the civil rights movement? ›

Resistance to racial segregation and discrimination with strategies such as civil disobedience, nonviolent resistance, marches, protests, boycotts, “freedom rides,” and rallies received national attention as newspaper, radio, and television reporters and cameramen documented the struggle to end racial inequality.

Videos

1. Erica Chenoweth: Why civil nonviolent resistance works
(Ford School)
2. The Dynamics of Civil Resistance - Jack DuVall (FSI 2011)
(ICNC - International Center on Nonviolent Conflict)
3. Science of protests, explained
(Soch by Mohak Mangal)
4. Civil Resistance and Extreme Violence - Dr. Erica Chenoweth, Nichole Argo (FSI 2011)
(ICNC - International Center on Nonviolent Conflict)
5. Riot or Rebellion? The Meaning of Violent Protest from the 1960s to George Floyd
(Vera Institute of Justice)
6. The Power and Potential of Nonviolent Struggle by Gene Sharp
(BetterSpokane)
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