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1 Social and Behavioral Theories 1. Learning Objectives After reviewing this chapter, readers should be able to: Define what theory is and identify two key types of social and behavioral science theory that are relevant to public health interventions. Describe the key constructs of four theories that are often used in public health interventions: the Health Belief Model, The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Social Ecological Model. Understand the nature of evidence about the relative effectiveness of theory-based interventions. Identify the most important considerations in choosing the right theory to address a health behavior problem in a particular population and context.

2 2. Introduction The most successful public health programs and initiatives are based on A growing body of an understanding of health behaviors evidence suggests that and the context in which they occur. interventions developed Therefore, interventions to improve with an explicit health behavior can be best designed theoretical foundation or with an understanding of relevant foundations are more theories of behavior change and the effective than those ability to use them skillfully. lacking a theoretical base and that some The science and art of using health strategies that combine behavior theories reflect an multiple theories and amalgamation of approaches, concepts have larger methods, and strategies from social effects. and health sciences. This broad range of perspectives from social and behavioral sciences are referred to social and behavioral science theory throughout this chapter. Influential work draws on the theoretical perspectives, research, and practice tools of such diverse disciplines as psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, communications, nursing, economics, and marketing.

3 2. Introduction This chapter provides an overview of contemporary social and behavioral science theory use for development, implementation and evaluation of public health and health promotion interventions. The following section defines theory and key types of theory in the context of the multiple determinants and multiple levels of determinants of health and health behavior. The sections after that describe important theories and their key concepts, and summarize the evidence about the use of theory in health behavior intervention research. This is followed by a discussion of future directions and challenges for bridging the divides between theory, practice and research.

4 3. Theory and Why It is Important A theory presents a systematic way of understanding events, behaviors and/or situations. A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that explains or predicts events or situations by specifying relations among variables. The notion of generality, or broad application, is important. Thus, theories are by their nature abstract and not content- or topic-specific. Even though various theoretical models of health behavior may reflect the same general ideas, each theory employs a unique vocabulary to articulate the specific factors considered to be important. Theories vary in the extent to which they have been conceptually developed and empirically tested; however, testability is an important feature of a theory. As Stephen Turner has noted in his chapter on Theory Development, social science theories are better understood as models that work in a limited range of settings, rather than laws of science which hold and apply universally.

5 3. Theory and Why It is Important Theories can guide the search to: Understand why people do or do not practice health promoting behaviors; Help identify what information is needed to design an effective intervention strategy; and Provide insight into how to design a program so it is successful. Theories and models help explain behavior, as well as suggest how to develop more effective ways to influence and change behavior. These two broad types of theory explanatory theory and change theory may have different emphases but are complementary. For example, understanding why an employee smokes is one step toward a successful cessation effort, but even the best explanations wont be enough by themselves to fully guide change to improve health. Some type of change model will also be needed. All of the theories and models described here have some potential as both explanatory and change models, though they might be better for one or the other purpose. For example, the Health Belief Model was originally developed as an explanatory model, whereas in contrast the Stages of Change construct of The Transtheoretical Model was conceived to help guide planned change efforts.

6 3. Theory and Why It is Important Both explanatory theories and change theories are rooted in an understanding of the social determinants of health and health behavior. Many social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the development, maintenance, and change of health behavior patterns. It is now generally recognized that public health and health promotion interventions are most likely to be effective if they embrace an ecological perspective and include upstream approaches, as discussed in McKinlays chapter on Appropriate Research Methods. That is, interventions should not only be targeted at individuals but should also affect interpersonal, organizational, and environmental factors influencing health behavior. Example 1 This is clearly illustrated when one thinks of the context of groups of employees purchasing food and eating during the work day. Employees may bring their food with them from home or buy food from workplace cafeterias and vending machines. Their choices are influenced by personal preferences, habits, nutrition information, availability, cost, and placement, among other things. The process is complex and determined not only by multiple factors but by factors at multiple levels.

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7 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Theories that gain recognition in a discipline shape the field, help define the scope of practice, and influence the training and Other often-used socialization of its professionals. Today, no theories and models (not single theory or conceptual framework described here) include dominates research or practice in health the Theory of Reasoned promotion and education. However, reviews of Action/Theory of journal articles published in the past two Planned Behavior decades have revealed the most often-used (TRA/TPB), social theories in health behavior research and support and social trends in theory use. Dozens of theories and networks, social models have been used, but only a few of marketing, diffusion of them were used in multiple publications and innovations, and several by several authors. What follows is a communication theories. description of the central elements of four of the most widely-used theoretical models of health behavior: The Health Belief Model (HBM) The Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change (TTM) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) The Social Ecological Model.

8 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Health Belief Model The Health Belief Model (HBM) was developed to help understand why people did or did not use preventive services offered by public health departments in the 1950s, and has evolved to address newer concerns in prevention and detection (e.g., mammography screening, influenza vaccines) as well as lifestyle behaviors such as sexual risk behaviors and injury prevention. The HBM theorizes that peoples beliefs about whether or not they are at risk for a disease or health problem, and their perceptions of the benefits of taking action to avoid it, influence their readiness to take action. Core constructs of the HBM: Perceived susceptibility and perceived severity Perceived benefits and perceived barriers Cues to action Self-efficacy (added more recently) The HBM has been most-often applied for health concerns that are prevention-related and asymptomatic, such as early cancer detection and hypertension screening where beliefs are as important or more important than overt symptoms. The HBM is also clearly relevant to interventions to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

9 Figure 1: Health Belief Model Source: Becker, M. H. & Maiman, L. A., (1975). Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations. Medical Care, 134(1), 10-24. Figure 1, p. 12. (Permissions pending).

10 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Exercise 1

11 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change Long-term changes in health behavior involve multiple actions and adaptations over time. Some people may not be ready to attempt changes, while others may have already begun implementing changes in their smoking, diet, activity levels, and so on. The construct of stage of change is a key element of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change, and proposes that people are at different stages of readiness to adopt healthful behaviors. The notion of readiness to change, or stage of change, has been examined in health behavior research and found useful in explaining and predicting changes for a variety of behaviors including smoking, physical activity, and eating habits. The TTM has also been applied in many settings. Figure 2: Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change Source: Prochaska, J. O. & Di Clemente, C. C., (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19(3), 276-288. Figure 2, p. 283.

12 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Stages of change is a heuristic model that describes a sequence of steps (see Table 1) in successful behavior change: 1. Precontemplation; 2. Contemplation; 3. Preparation; 4. Action; and 5. Maintenance. The stages of change model can be used both to help understand why people at high-risk for diabetes might not be ready to attempt behavioral change, and to improve the success of health counseling. Another application of the stages of change model in organizations and communities involves conceptualizing organizations along the stages- of-change continuum according to their leaders and members (i.e., employees) readiness for change. Table 1 Behavior Change Stages and Their Characteristics Precontemplation No recognition of need for or interest in change (in the next six months) Contemplation Thinking about changing (in the next six months) Preparation Planning for change (generally within the next month) Action Adopting new habits (for at least six months) Maintenance Ongoing practice of new, healthier behavior (over six months and chances to return to old behavior are few)

13 People do not always move through the stages of change in a linear manner they often recycle and repeat certain stages, for example individuals may relapse and go back to an earlier stage depending on their level of motivation and self-efficacy. Exercise 2

14 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory (SCT), the cognitive formulation of social learning theory that has been best articulated by Bandura, explains human behavior in terms of a three-way, dynamic, reciprocal model in which personal factors, environmental influences, and behavior continually interact (See Figure 3). SCT synthesizes concepts and processes from cognitive, behavioristic, and emotional models of behavior change, so it can be readily applied to counseling interventions for disease prevention and management. A basic premise of SCT is that people learn not only through their own experiences, but also by observing the actions of others and the results of those actions. Figure 3: Social Cognitive Theory Bandura, A., (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice-Hall. P. 24. Key constructs of social cognitive theory that are relevant to health behavior change interventions include: Observational learning Reinforcement Self-control Self-efficacy

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15 Some elements of behavior modification based on SCT constructs of self-control, reinforcement, and self-efficacy include goal-setting, self-monitoring and behavioral contracting. Goal-setting and self-monitoring seem to be particularly useful components of effective interventions.

16 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Social Cognitive Theory Self-efficacy, or a persons confidence in his or her ability to take action and to persist in that action despite obstacles or challenges, is Reciprocal especially important for influencing health Determinism behavior change efforts. This core construct is Reciprocal Determinism also central to social The key Social Cognitive Theory construct of ecological models and is reciprocal determinism means that a person more important today can be both an agent for change and a than ever before. responder to change. Thus, changes in the environment, the examples of role models, and reinforcements can be used to promote healthier behavior.

17 Exercise 3

18 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Social Ecological Model The social ecological model helps to understand factors affecting behavior and also provides guidance for developing successful programs through social environments. Social ecological models emphasize multiple levels of influence (such as individual, interpersonal, organizational, community and public policy) and the idea that behaviors both shape and are shaped by the social environment. The principles of social ecological models are consistent with social cognitive theory concepts which suggest that creating an environment conducive to change is important to making it easier to adopt healthy behaviors. Example 2 Given the growing epidemic of obesity in the United States and other developed countries, more attention is being focused toward examining and improving the health-promoting features of communities and neighborhoods and reducing the ubiquity of high-calorie, high- fat food choices. Figure 4: Social Ecological Model

19 4. Important Theories and Their Key Constructs Exercise 4

20 5. Interventions to Change Health Behavior Health behaviors are shaped through a complex interplay of determinants at different levels. For example, physical activity is influenced by self-efficacy at the individual level, social support from family and friends at the interpersonal level, and perceptions of crime and safety at the community level. Ecological models suggest that these multiple levels of influence interact across levels. For example, social support for exercise from co-workers may interact with the availability of exercise equipment at the worksite to lead to increased physical activity. Traditionally, and especially in clinical settings, strategies to change health behaviors have focused on individual-level factors such as knowledge, beliefs, and skills. As ecological thinking has gained currency, intervention strategies have broadened to target factors at other levels of influence such as organizational policies and the built environment. This recognition of the complex range of factors that shape health behaviors can make the selection of intervention strategies daunting.

21 Exercise 5

22 5. Interventions to Change Health Behavior Fortunately, there are several broadly applicable and widely used theories and models for targeting behavioral determinants at various levels, so a firm grasp of available options makes it unnecessary to reinvent the wheel. Researchers and program planners can select from individual-level theories such as the Health Belief Model, which emphasizes beliefs of susceptibility and severity of a health problem, and perceived benefits and barriers of taking action. Alternatively, an intervention planner might use organizational development theories to create policy or environmental change within an organization such as a clinic or school.

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23 5. Interventions to Change Health Behavior Intervention strategies targeting the individual level include goal setting, behavioral contracting, and tailored health communication. These strategies most typically draw on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and the stages of change construct from the Transtheoretical Model. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) explains human behavior in terms of a three-way, dynamic, reciprocal model in which personal factors, environmental influences, and behavior continually interact. Key constructs of social cognitive theory that are relevant to behavior change interventions include observational learning, reinforcement, self-control, and self-efficacy. Health professionals or public health educators can make deliberate efforts to increase clients self- efficacy using three types of strategies: 1. setting small, incremental and achievable goals; 2. using formalized behavioral contracting to establish goals and specify rewards; and 3. monitoring and reinforcement, including client self-monitoring by keeping records.

24 5. Interventions to Change Health Behavior Commonly used strategies at the interpersonal level include lay health advisors and social support programs. Underlying theoretical constructs include social support, social norms and social networks. Intervention strategies at the organizational level include provider reminders and feedback, and other systems changes. The process of creating organizational change is often informed by organizational development theory. At the community level, coalition-building is a particularly common intervention strategy. The following sections describe each of these intervention strategies and how they are informed by theory. Brief examples of each strategy are also provided.

25 6. Theory Use in Intervention Research Recently, several reviews have examined which theories were used in health behavior intervention research and whether theory-based strategies are positively associated with desirable outcomes. Table 2 summarizes 11 systematic reviews published since 2000 most within the past three years that reported on theory use and in several cases, the effects of using theories for intervention design. They cover a range of behavioral topics: dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake; cancer screening; injury prevention; HIV-related sexual risk behaviors; and contraception. These reviews also examined tailored print and computer-based interventions. Table 2: Reviews of Theory Use in Health Behavior Intervention Research

26 6. Theory Use in Intervention Research As shown in Table 2, the most-often used theories in these reviews are Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), The Transtheoretical Model/stages of change (TTM), the Health Belief Model (HBM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the PRECEDE/PROCEED planning model. Most of these reviews examined individual and small-group interventions and few addressed organizational change, provider behavior or other upstream interventions. These patterns are similar to those in broad reviews of the literature (above), and show that a relatively small number of theories are being used to develop and test interventions. Few of these reviews compared the relative effects of using different theories as the basis for interventions, but several explored whether using a theoretical foundation led to larger effects. Several reviews concluded that interventions based on theory or explicitly described theoretical constructs were more effective than those not using theory. The mechanisms that explain these larger effects are not clear. The use of theories that fit well with the problems and context in the studies might explain the success of theory-based interventions. It is equally plausible that theory-based strategies are developed with greater care, fidelity and structure. There may be other explanations as well.

27 7. How Theory is Used The social and behavioral science theories used as a basis for health interventions reflect the field, which is both eclectic and in a relatively early stage of development. The question of how theories are used (or not used) in research and practice is as important as researchers try to ascertain the role of theory in intervention development and evaluation. In a recent review of theory use from 2000 to 2005, we classified articles that employed health behavior theory along a continuum: 1. Informed by theory: a theoretical framework was identified, but no or limited application of the theory was used in specific study components and measures; 2. Applied theory: a theoretical framework was specified, and several of the constructs were applied in components of the study; 3. Tested theory: a theoretical framework was specified, and more than half the theoretical constructs were measured and explicitly tested, or two or more theories were compared to one another in a study; or 4. Building/creating theory: new or revised/expanded theory was developed using constructs specified, measured, and analyzed in a study. More than two-thirds of the studies in the review used theory to inform a study; 17.9 percent of theories were applied; 3.6 percent were tested, and only 9.4 percent involved building/creating theory (84). These findings underscore the importance of more thorough application and testing of health behavior theories to advance science and move the field forward.

28 8. Choosing the Right Theory Effective interventions and sound research both depend on marshaling the most appropriate theory and practice strategies for a given situation. Different theories are best Public health experts at suited to different units of practice, such as once benefit from and individuals, groups, and organizations. For are challenged by the example, when one is attempting to overcome multitude of theoretical women's personal barriers to obtaining frameworks and models mammograms, the Health Belief Model may from the social sciences be useful. The Transtheoretical Model may be available for their use, especially useful in developing smoking because the best choices cessation interventions. When trying to and direct translations change physicians' mammography practices may not be immediately by instituting reminder systems, evident. organizational change theories are more suitable. At the same time, physicians might use The Transtheoretical Model to inform their discussions with individual patients about getting a first mammogram or annual screening. The choice of a suitable theory or theories should begin with identifying the problem, goal, and units of practice, not with selecting a theoretical framework because it is intriguing, familiar, or in vogue. One should start with a logic model of the problem and work backwards to identify potential solutions.

29 8. Choosing the Right Theory The adequacy of a theory most often is assessed in terms of three criteria: 1. Its logic, or internal consistency in not yielding mutually contradictory derivations, 2. The extent to which it is parsimonious, or broadly relevant while using a manageable number of concepts, and 3. Its plausibility in fitting with prevailing theories in the field. Theories also are judged in the context of activities of practitioners and researchers. Practitioners may apply the pragmatic criterion of usefulness to a theory and thus would be concerned with its consistency with everyday observations. Researchers make scientific judgments of a theory's ecological validity, or the extent to which it conforms to observable reality when empirically tested. We should test our theories iteratively in the field as well as in more controlled settings. When we do so, theory, research, and practice begin to converge.

30 9. Challenges Moving Forward Science is by definition cumulative, with periods of paradigm shifts that come more rarely as a result of crises when current theories fail to explain some phenomena. The same applies to the science base that supports long-standing as well as innovative health behavior interventions. More research is needed at all points along the research continuum. We need more basic research to develop and test theories, more intervention research to develop and test evidence- based interventions, and more concerted, focused attention to dissemination of evidence-based interventions. Moreover, both the research and practice communities in health education and health behavior are sorely in need of more rigor and precision in theory development and testingin measures, assessment of mediating variables, and in specification of theoretical elements. We encourage more care and attention to how theories are tested, and especially to the way variables are measured and analyzed. Building a solid, cumulative base of theory development is very difficult when one researchers findings cannot be compared to anothers.

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31 9. Challenges Moving Forward Successful behavior change strategies take many forms. Theory and research suggest that the most effective behavior change interventions are those that use multiple strategies and aim to achieve multiple goals of awareness, information transmission, skill development, and supportive environments and policies. Goal-setting and monitoring are important elements of many successful interventions. The emergence of information technology tools such as the internet, wireless technology, and personal digital assistants have expanded the range of theory-based strategies available for effective behavior change in health care and community settings. Behavioral interventions should be sensitive to audience and contextual factors, and recognize that most behavior change is incremental and that maintenance of change usually requires continued and focused efforts. Exercise 6

32 9. Challenges Moving Forward When is a new theory needed? As noted previously in the description of theory use in published articles, there is a proliferation of theories but few are being widely used. Often, developers state that existing theories do not meet their needs and so a new theory or model is necessary. However, careful thought about the generalizability, testability, and support for a new theory might instead lead to the choice of a suitable theory, to minor adaptations for unique cultural groups, and modified measures and evaluation procedures. Work with culturally diverse groups provides a case in point. Fundamental views of matters such as causes of health and disease among some ethnic groups may seem to point to a need for new theories. However, familiarity with a range of theories and thoughtful selection of the best-suited theories might solve this problem.

33 9. Challenges Moving Forward Population-focused programs and individual-focused strategies In population-focused programs, it is of limited value to adopt a program oriented solely toward modifying individuals behaviors (e.g., teaching patient low-fat food cooking methods). A more productive strategy would also include environmental change, for example expanding the availability and affordability of more nutritious food choices. When this is done along with individual skill training, longer-lasting and meaningful changes can be achieved. There are many theories of policy and organizational change that complement individually-oriented theories, but are underutilized. They should be further operationalized, tested and disseminated. The audience for health behavior change programs is truly global, and the professional community represents many different settings and countries. Theory developers and theory users must consider more than ever how culture, context, and health problems can and should affect their choices and applications of theory and interventions. Professionals designing interventions have more options than ever before, yet our theories have improved only incrementally while our technologies have changed exponentially. This should be a wake-up call to public health practitioners to think more concretely, expansively and deeply about how they and their co-workers use theory.

34 10. Summary Theory, research, and practice are part of a continuum for understanding the determinants of behaviors, testing strategies for change, and disseminating effective interventions. Rigorous tests of theory-based interventions, including measurement and analyses of mediator and moderators, are the building blocks of the evidence base in health behavior change. Recent reviews of research on health behavior change have shown that interventions based on theory or theoretical constructs are more effective than those not using theory. However, the mechanisms that explain the larger effects have not been studied. The most-often used theories of health behavior are Social Cognitive Theory, The Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change, the Health Belief Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The most-often mentioned theoretical model that has not been fully applied in research and practice is the Social Ecological Model. This promising model needs to better articulated, applied and evaluated. Other widely used theoretical models and planning frameworks: Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior PRECEDE/PROCEED Model Social support and social networks Stress and coping theories Diffusion of innovations Social marketing

35 10. Summary The strongest interventions may be built from multiple theories. When combining theories, it is important to clearly think through the unique contribution of each theory. The question of when a new theory is needed requires careful thought and more attention. There is already a proliferation of theories though only a few are widely used. When applying theory, there is no substitute for knowing the audience. Participatory program design, evaluation and research improve the odds of success. Also, health behavior change programs that address significant public health problems should strive to complement individually-oriented intervention models with strategies and models to develop healthier policies, systems and environments.

36 11. References Albada A, Ausems M, Bensing J, van Dulmen S. 2009. Tailored information about cancer risk and screening: A systematic review. Patient Educ. Couns. 77: 155-171, 2009. Ammerman AS, Lindquist CH, Lohr KN, Hersey J. 2002. The efficacy of behavioral interventions to modify dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake: a review of the evidence. Prev. Med. 35:25- 41 Bandura A. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall Bandura A. 1997. Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: WH Freeman and Company DiClemente RJ, Crosby RA, Kegler MC, eds. 2002. Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Glanz K, Bishop D. The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions. Annu Rev Public Health 31: 399-418, 2010 Glanz K, Rimer BK. 1995. Theory at a Glance: A Guide to Health Promotion Practice. Bethesda MD: National Cancer Institute. 2nd edition 2005. NIH Publ. 05-3896. Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K, eds. 2008. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (4th ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Grol RP, Bosch MC, Hulscher ME, Eccles MP, Wensing M. 2007. Planning and studying improvement in patient care: the use of theoretical perspectives. Milbank Q. 85:93-138 Joronen K, Rankin SH, Astedt-Kurki P. 2008. School-based drama interventions in health promotion for children and adolescents: systematic review. J. Adv. Nurs. 63:116-31 Kuhn, T. S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Legler J, Meissner HI, Coyne C, Breen N, Chollette V, Rimer BK. 2002. The effectiveness of interventions to promote mammography among women with historically lower rates of screening. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 11:59-71

37 Lewin, K. A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGraw Hill, 1935. Lopez LM, Tolley EE, Grimes DA, Chen-Mok M. 2009. Theory-based interventions for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (Online):CD007249 Lustria ML, Cortese J, Noar SM, Glueckauf RL. 2009. Computer-tailored health interventions delivered over the web: review and analysis of key components. Patient Educ. Couns. 74:156- 73 McGuire, W. J. "A Contextualist Theory of Knowledge: Its Implications for Innovation and Reform in Psychological Research." Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1983, 16, 1- 47. McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. 1988. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Educ. Q. 15:351-77 Noar SM. 2008. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior: review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence. AIDS Behav. 12:335-53 Noar SM, Benac CN, Harris MS. 2007. Does tailoring matter? Meta-analytic review of tailored print health behavior change interventions. Psychol. Bull. 133:673-93 Noar SM, Black HG, Pierce LB. 2009. Efficacy of computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions: a meta-analysis. AIDS (London, England) 23:107-15 Noar SM, Chabot M, Zimmerman RS. 2008. Applying health behavior theory to multiple behavior change: considerations and approaches. Prev. Med. 46:275-80 Noar SM, Palmgreen P, Chabot M, Dobransky N, Zimmerman RS. 2009. A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress? J. Health Commun. 14:15-42 Painter JE, Borba CP, Hynes M, Mays D, Glanz K. 2008. The use of theory in health behavior research from 2000 to 2005: a systematic review. Ann. Behav. Med. 35:358-62 Prochaska JO, Redding CA, Evers KE. 2008. The Transtheoretical Model and stages of change. In Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (4th ed), ed. K Glanz, B Rimer, K Viswanath, pp. 97-121. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

38 Rejeski, W. J., Brawley, L. R., McAuley, E., and Rapp, S. An Examination of Theory and Behavior Change in Randomized Clinical Trials. Controlled Clinical Trials, 2000, 21(5 Suppl), 164S-170S. Rosenstock IM, Strecher VJ, Becker MH. 1988. Social learning theory and the Health Belief Model. Health Educ. Q. 15(2):175-83 Sallis JF, Owen N, Fisher EB. 2008. Ecological models of health behavior. In Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (4th ed), ed. K Glanz, B Rimer, K Viswanath, pp. 464-85. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Smedley BD, Syme SL, eds. 2000. Promotion Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O'Brien R, Glanz K. 2008. Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29:253-72 Trifiletti LB, Gielen AC, Sleet DA, Hopkins K. 2005. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research? Health Educ. Res. 20:298- 307 van Ryn M, Heaney CA. 1992. What's the use of theory? Health Educ. Q. 19:315-30

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39 12. Author Biography Karen Glanz, PhD is currently George A. Weiss University Professor, a Penn Integrates Knowledge in the Schools of Medicine and Nursing, and Director of the Center for Health Behavior Research at the University of Pennsylvania. She came to Penn in 2009 after professorships at Emory University, the University of Hawaii, and Temple University. With MPH and PhD degrees in health behavior and health education, Dr. Glanzs research has integrated public health and social and behavioral science theories and methods, with applications to cancer prevention and control; obesity, nutrition, and the built environment; chronic disease prevention and control and health communication technologies. The recipient of several awards for her interventions and research contributions, she has received grant funding of over $ 30 million and her scholarly contributions include more than 300 publications. Karen Glanz is senior editor of Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (Jossey-Bass Inc., 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008), a widely used text that has been translated into several languages and recently published in its fourth edition; and lead author of the monograph Theory at a Glance: A Guide to Health Promotion Practice (NCI, 1995 & 2005). She was designated a Highly Cited Author by, in the top 0.5% of authors in her field over a 20- year period.

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What are some social and behavioral theories? ›

The most-often used theories of health behavior are Social Cognitive Theory, The Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change, the Health Belief Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The most-often mentioned theoretical model that has not been fully applied in research and practice is the Social Ecological Model.

What are the 4 behavioral theories? ›

Four models that present a logical and reasonable approach to behavioral change include the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Self Efficacy, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Multiattribute Utility Model.

What is behaviorist theory PDF? ›

Behaviorist theorists believe that behavior is shaped deliberately by forces in the environment and that the type of person and actions desired can be the product of design. In other words, behavior is determined by others, rather than by our own free will.

What are the five theories of behavior? ›

Of the many that exist, the most prevalent are learning theories, social cognitive theory, theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour, transtheoretical model of behavior change, the health action process approach, and the BJ Fogg model of behavior change.

What are the three different types of behavioral theories? ›

The three types of behaviour theory compared in this paper are: (a) the classical introspective (which in- cludes psychoanalytically oriented theories) based on understanding in the sense of Verstehen; (b) the be- haviouristic, illustrated by the work of Hull and Skinner; and (c) the sociological, associated with the ...

What are the 7 characteristics of behavioral changes? ›

1) A-B, 2) A-B-A-B, 3) Multiple-baseline-across-behaviors, 4) Multiple-baseline-across-subjects, 5) Multiple-baseline-across-settings, 6) Alternating-treatments (ATD), 7) Changing criterion.

What are examples of behavioral theories? ›

An example of behaviorism is when teachers reward their class or certain students with a party or special treat at the end of the week for good behavior throughout the week. The same concept is used with punishments. The teacher can take away certain privileges if the student misbehaves.

Who are the main behavioral theorists? ›

The main influences of behaviourist psychology were Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949), John B. Watson (1878-1958), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). The idea that we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring is called “classical conditioning.”

Why is Behavioural theory important? ›

Behaviorism is key for educators because it impacts how students react and behave in the classroom, and suggests that teachers can directly influence how their students behave.

What are learning theories PDF? ›

Learning theories are those that combine conceptual models at the assertion level principles for systematic knowledge of the learning activity through a series of scientific statements functional value informative, explanatory, predictive, summary, normative, in different variations of specific authors or schools.

Who is the father of behaviorism? ›

Why Is John B. Watson Considered the Founder of Behaviorism? Given the many past and present tributes to John B. Watson, we might fairly ask why he is uniquely revered as the father of behavior analysis.

What is the behavioral theory of personality? ›

Behavioral personality theory, also known as behaviorism, is the study of human behavior that connects personality to one's environment. Behaviorists believe that people learn behaviors through reward and punishment and that a person's behavioral development is rooted in external forces in one's environment.

What are the 5 stages of behavior change? ›

The five stages of change are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Precontemplation is the stage at which there is no intention to change behavior in the foreseeable future. Many individuals in this stage are unaware or underaware of their problems.

What are the main types of theory? ›

Zetterberg (1965) discusses four types of theory in sociology: Theory as classics; Theory as criticism; Taxonomic theory; and Scientific theory. Each of these types has rough parallels in social education and may be used to guide research.

Can a person change their behavior? ›

These common sayings imply people can change — and they absolutely can. Anyone can make an effort to alter specific habits or behaviors. Even some aspects of attitude and personality can change over time… with some dedicated effort. Yet while people can change, not everyone does.

What are the two types of behavioral learning? ›

Classical conditioning involves associating an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about associating a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

What are two classes of behavioral theories? ›

There are two main types of behaviorism: methodological behaviorism, which was heavily influenced by John B. Watson's work, and radical behaviorism, which was pioneered by psychologist B.F. Skinner.

What are the types of behavior in psychology? ›

What Are The Four Basic Behavior Types? From this study, four personality types were identified: pessimistic, trusting, optimistic and envious. The most common personality type was envious with 30% of the share, with pessimistic, trusting, and optimistic scoring 20%.

What are the 4 functions of behavior? ›

The predominant four functions of behavior are attention, escape, access, and sensory needs. These four functions allow us to understand and categorize someone's actions, as well as determine why behaviors occur.

What are the 3 key factors in Behaviour change? ›

Key drivers of behavioural change

They found that the three key drivers of behaviour change are motivation and capability, which are internal conditions, and opportunity, which is an external condition. These are all interlinked and can influence each other.

What factors influence Behaviour change? ›

What factors can affect behaviour?
  • physical factors - age, health, illness, pain, influence of a substance or medication.
  • personal and emotional factors - personality, beliefs, expectations, emotions, mental health.
  • life experiences - family, culture, friends, life events.
  • what the person needs and wants.

What is the concept of behavioral theory? ›

Behavioral theory holds that psychological events can be described and explained in terms of observable behavior and its associations with environmental stimuli and occurrences.

How many behavioral theories are there? ›

About the Three Types of Behavioral Learning

Although rooted in behaviorism, the observational learning theory is considered to be a bridge between behaviorism and cognitive learning theories.

Who is a famous behavioral psychologist? ›

Psychological behaviorism is present in the work of Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), Edward Thorndike (1874–1949), as well as Watson. Its fullest and most influential expression is B. F. Skinner's work on schedules of reinforcement.

Who is a famous behaviorist? ›

The most famous proponents of psychological behaviorism were John Watson and B. F. Skinner (1904–1990). Other notable behaviorists were Edwin Guthrie (1886–1959), Edward Tolman (1886–1959), Clark Hull (1884–1952), and Kenneth Spence (1907–1967).

Who wrote the behavioral theory? ›

The development of behaviorism is largely attributed to John B. Watson who wrote a seminal article in 1913 in which he argued that psychology should be viewed as a purely objective experimental branch of natural science.

What is behavioral theory of mental health? ›

Behavioral theory posits that certain environmental changes and avoidant behaviors inhibit individuals from experiencing environmental reward and reinforcement and subsequently leads to the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms.

What are the weakness of behavioural theory? ›

A weakness is that the approach is environmentally deterministic. For example, it suggests behaviours are learnt through associations made with environmental stimuli and/or the response that we get (reinforcement).

What are the problems with the behaviorist theory? ›

Behaviorism is harmful for vulnerable children, including those with developmental delays, neurodivergence (ADHD, Autism, etc.), mental health concerns (anxiety, depression, etc.). The concept of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports is not the issue. The promotion of behaviorism is the issue.

What are the 4 types of learning in psychology? ›

The VARK model of learning styles suggests that there are four main types of learners: visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic.

What are the 7 principles of learning? ›

The principles are identified as: Learners at the centre. The social nature of learning.
Assessment for learning
  • Do learners know what is expected?
  • Do learners know what quality looks like and how they are making progress with their own learning?
  • Are learners comfortable with both giving and receiving feedback?
13 Oct 2016

What are the 7 learning theories in education? ›

The major concepts and theories of learning include behaviourist theories, cognitive psychology, constructivism, social constructivism, experiential learning, multiple intelligence, and situated learning theory and community of practice.

How is behaviorism used today? ›

Behaviorist principles are sometimes used today to treat mental health challenges, such as phobias or PTSD; exposure therapy, for example, aims to weaken conditioned responses to certain feared stimuli. Applied behavior analysis (ABA), a therapy used to treat autism, is based on behaviorist principles.

Which of the following approach is known as behavioral approach? ›

Behaviorist Approach. Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning. Thus, behavior is simply a response to environmental stimuli.

What is the study of the mind? ›

Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychologists are actively involved in studying and understanding mental processes, brain functions, and behavior.

What are the 7 Theories of Personality? ›

The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, evolutionary, and social learning perspective.

How do I change my behavior from negative to positive? ›

12 Tips to Turn Those Negative Thoughts Into Positive Actions
  1. Start a Journal. ...
  2. Always Ask Yourself, “What Would I Say to a Friend?” ...
  3. Say “Stop“ ...
  4. Change Negativity to Neutrality. ...
  5. Create an SOS File of Positive Praise. ...
  6. Breathe. ...
  7. Talk to Somebody. ...
  8. Follow a Healthy Lifestyle.
7 Jul 2021

Why do people change? ›

So what causes people to change? People change when motivated by a sense of independence, a sense of competence, and a sense of connection to others. These motivations can be sparked in moments of extreme frustration when a person realizes their current approach is no longer working.

What are the 3 main theories of sociology? ›

These three theoretical orientations are: Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Perspective.

What is an example of social theory? ›

An example of a sociological theory is the work of Robert Putnam on the decline of civic engagement. Putnam found that Americans' involvement in civic life (e.g., community organizations, clubs, voting, religious participation, etc.) has declined over the last 40 to 60 years.

What are the six major theories? ›

Some of the widely accepted psychological theories are the behavioral theories, the cognitive theories, humanist theories, biological theories, psychodynamic and the social psychology theories.

What are the 6 stages of behavior change? ›

The TTM posits that individuals move through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.

How can I change my personality as a better person? ›

Here's a look at some ways to build self-improvement into your daily routine and let go of negative thoughts about yourself.
  1. Cultivate gratitude. ...
  2. Greet everyone you meet. ...
  3. Try a digital detox. ...
  4. Use positive self-talk. ...
  5. Practice random acts of kindness. ...
  6. Eat at least one meal mindfully. ...
  7. Get enough sleep. ...
  8. Breathe consciously.
24 Apr 2019

Why do people change their names? ›

A name change request can come about simply because a person doesn't like his or her name as given at birth. Perhaps they'd prefer something more unique than Britney or Ashley or something less unique than a homespun name that combined parents' names.

What are examples of behavioral theories? ›

An example of behaviorism is when teachers reward their class or certain students with a party or special treat at the end of the week for good behavior throughout the week. The same concept is used with punishments. The teacher can take away certain privileges if the student misbehaves.

What is Skinner's behavioral theory? ›

B. F. Skinner's theory of learning says that a person is first exposed to a stimulus, which elicits a response, and the response is then reinforced (stimulus, response, reinforcement). This, ultimately, is what conditions our behaviors. To make this process easier to remember, the ABCs of behaviorism were developed.

What are examples of social science theories? ›

Below are some examples of theories: Psychology: development, cognition, personality, motivation, etc. Sociology: social change, race, class, gender, etc. Business: leadership, management, etc.

What are the theories of behavioral school? ›

Behaviorism focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. This learning theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment, and says that innate or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior.

Who are the main behavioral theorists? ›

The main influences of behaviourist psychology were Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949), John B. Watson (1878-1958), and B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). The idea that we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring is called “classical conditioning.”

Who defined behavioral theory? ›

Behaviorist B.F. Skinner described operant conditioning as the process in which learning can occur through reinforcement and punishment. 9 More specifically: By forming an association between a certain behavior and the consequences of that behavior, you learn.

What are the two types of behavioral learning? ›

Classical conditioning involves associating an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about associating a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

Who is the father of behavioral theory? ›

Why Is John B. Watson Considered the Founder of Behaviorism? Given the many past and present tributes to John B. Watson, we might fairly ask why he is uniquely revered as the father of behavior analysis.

Why is Skinner's theory important? ›

Skinner's theory of operant conditioning played a key role in helping psychologists to understand how behavior is learnt. It explains why reinforcements can be used so effectively in the learning process, and how schedules of reinforcement can affect the outcome of conditioning.

Who is known as father of behaviorism? ›

John Broadus Watson, an American psychologist who codified and publicized behaviourism, an approach to psychology that, in his view, was restricted to the objective, experimental study of the relations between environmental events and human behaviour. John B Watson is known as the founder and father of behaviourism.

What are the 3 main theories of sociology? ›

These three theoretical orientations are: Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Perspective.

Why is social theory important? ›

The importance of sociological theory lies in how it gives us a way to speak about, describe and interpret various behaviors. Many of the facts that we take for granted about ourselves as human beings in an organized society have come to us through the study of sociological theory.

What is theory short answer? ›

A theory is a well-substantiated explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can incorporate laws, hypotheses and facts. The theory of gravitation, for instance, explains why apples fall from trees and astronauts float in space.

What is the behavioral theory of personality? ›

Behavioral personality theory, also known as behaviorism, is the study of human behavior that connects personality to one's environment. Behaviorists believe that people learn behaviors through reward and punishment and that a person's behavioral development is rooted in external forces in one's environment.

What is behavioral theory of mental health? ›

Behavioral theory posits that certain environmental changes and avoidant behaviors inhibit individuals from experiencing environmental reward and reinforcement and subsequently leads to the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms.


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