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    The Republic Act 9163: An Overview of the

    National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

    Part I. Looking Back: The Expanded Reserve Officers TrainingCorps (ROTC) Program

    The Expanded Reserve Officers Training Corps ProgramExperience

    The Expanded Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) Program wasmandated by the basic

    constitutional provisions that the state shall promote andprotect the physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual

    and social well-being of its citizenry. The Head Quarters of theArmed Forces of the Philippines directive

    dated June 1994 established the Expanded ROTC Program.

    The implementation of the Expanded Reserve Officers TrainingCorps (ROTC) Program started

    during the School Year 1996-1997. On February 9, 1996, theCommission on Higher Education (CHED)

    issued CHED Memorandum Order No. 10, Series of 1996 on theRevised Guidelines in the

    Implementation of the Expanded ROTC Program. The offering of thethree components of the Expanded

    ROTC Program namely, Military Training Service (MTS), LawEnforcement Service (LES) and Civic

    Welfare Service (CWS) was declared mandatory for all HigherEducation Institutions (HEIs). The

    Expanded ROTC Program enables the cadets who are in the lastyear of the basic military training tochoose from the threecomponents.

    Article 3, Section 7 of RA 7077 stated that the mission of theCitizen Armed Force, alternately

    referred to as the Reserve Force, is to provide the base for theexpansion of the Armed Forces of the

    Philippines in the event of war, invasion or rebellion, toassist in relief and rescue during disasters or

    calamities, to assist in socio-economic development and toassist in the operation and maintenance of

    essential government or private utilities in the furtherance ofoverall mission.

    Likewise, the Expanded ROTC Program was established to sustainthe ROTC Program as one of

    the fertile sources of manpower for the AFP Reserve Force, toprovide the students enrolled in the initialbaccalaureate degreeprograms with options other than military training to satisfy therequirement for

    graduation thereof and to provide a forum for the implementationof the National Service Law.

    The three components of the Expanded ROTC Program:

    1. Cadets who were enrolled in Military Service (MS) underwentbasic training on parade drills, military

    courtesy and discipline and combat training.

    2. Those who opted for Law Enforcement Service (LES) were giventraining on law enforcement services.

    3. The Civic Welfare Service (CWS) option was consisted ofactivities designed to encourage the youth to

    contribute in the improvement of the general welfare and thequality of life for the local community.

    Emphasis here was given to health, education, safety,livelihood, and morale of the citizenry. Lectures

    focused on loyalty, patriotism, nation building,civic-consciousness and other values.

    Part II. A New Beginning and Beyond: The National ServiceTraining Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

    The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

    The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001, RA9163, has been signed into law

    by her Excellency, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on January23, 2002, in response to the public

    clamor for reforms in the Reserved Officers Training Corps(ROTC) Program.

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    Republic of the Philippines

    Congress of the Philippines

    Metro Manila

    Twelfth Congress

    First Regular Session

    Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-third dayof July, two thousand one.

    [REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9163]



    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of thePhilippines in Congress assembled:

    SECTION 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as the NationalService Training Program (NSTP) Act

    of 2001.

    SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby affirmed theprime duty of the government to serve and

    protect its citizens. In turn, it shall be the responsibility ofall citizens to defend the security of the State andin fulfillmentthereof, the government may require each citizen to renderpersonal, military or civil service.

    Recognizing the youths vital role in nation building, the Stateshall promote civic consciousness among

    the youth and shall develop their physical, moral, spiritual,intellectual and social well-being. It shall

    inculcate in the youth patriotism, nationalism, and advancetheir involvement in public and civic affairs.

    In pursuit of these goals, the youth, the most valuable resourceof the nation, shall be motivated, trained,

    organized and mobilized in military training, literacy, civicwelfare and other similar endeavors in the

    service of the nation.

    SECTION 3. Definition of Terms. For purposes of this Act, thefollowing are hereby defined as follows:

    (a) National Service Training Program (NSTP) is a program aimedat enhancing civic consciousness

    and defense preparedness in the youth by developing the ethicsof service and patriotism while undergoing

    training in any of its three (3) program components. Its variouscomponents are specially designed to

    enhance the youths active contribution to the generalwelfare.

    (b) Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) is a programinstitutionalized under Sections 38 and 39 of

    Republic Act No. 7077 designed to provide military training intertiary level students in order to motivate,

    training, organize and mobilize them for national defensepreparedness.

    (c) Literacy Training Service is a program designed to trainstudents to become teacher literacy and

    numeracy skills to school children, out of school youth, andother segments of society in need of their need

    (d) Civic Welfare Training Service refers to programs oractivities contributory to the general welfareand the betterment oflife for the members of the community or the enhancement of itsfacilities, especially

    those devoted to improving health, education, environment,entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and moralsof thecitizenry.

    (e) Program Component shall refer to the service components ofthe NSTP as enumerated in section 4 of

    this Act.

    SECTION 4. Establishment of the National Service TrainingProgram. There is hereby established a

    National Service Training Program (NSTP), which shall form partof the curricula of all baccalaureate

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    degree courses and of at least two (2) year technical vocationalcourses and is a requisite for graduation,

    consisting of the following services components:

    (1) The Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), which is herebymade optional and voluntary upon the

    effectivity of this Act;

    (2) The Literacy Training Service; and

    (3) The Civic Welfare Training Service

    The ROTC under the NSTP shall instill patriotism, moral,virtues, respect for rights of civilians, and

    adherence to the Constitution, among others. Citizenshiptraining shall be given emphasis in all three (3)

    program components.

    The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and TechnicalEducation and Skills Development

    Authority (TESDA), in consultation with the Department ofNational Defense (DND), Philippine

    Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC),Coordinating Council of Private Educational

    Associations of the Philippines (COCOPEA) and other concernedgovernment agencies, may design and

    implement such other program components as may be necessary inconsonance with the provisions of this


    SECTION 5. Coverage. Students, male and female, of anybaccalaureate degree course or at least two (2)

    year technical vocational courses in public and privateeducational institutions shall be required tocomplete one (1) ofthe NSTP components as requisite for graduation.

    SECTION 6. Duration and Equivalent Course Unit. Each of theaforementioned NSTP program

    components shall be undertaken foe an academic period of two (2)semesters.

    In lieu of the two (2) semester program for any of thecomponents of the NSTP, a one(1) summer

    program may be designed, formulated and adopted by the DND,CHED, and TESDA.

    SECTION 7. NSTP Offering in Higher and Technical-VocationalEducational Institutions. All higher and

    technical-vocational institutions, public and private, mustoffer at least one of the program components.

    Provided, that State universities and colleges shall offer theROTC component and at least one othercomponent as provided herein:Provided, further, that private higher and technical vocationaleducation

    institutions may also offer the ROTC if they have at least threehundred and fifty (350) cadet students.

    In offering the NSTP whether during the semestral or summerperiods, clustering of affected students from

    different educational institutions may be done, taking intoaccount logistics, branch of service andgeographicalconsiderations. Schools that do not meet the required number ofstudents to maintain the

    optional ROTC and any of the NSTP components shall allow theirstudents to cross-enroll to other schools

    irrespective of whether or not the NSTP components in saidschools are being administered by the same or

    another branch of service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines(AFP), CHED and TESDA to which

    schools are identified.

    SECTION 8. Fees and Incentives. Higher and Technical-vocationalinstitutions shall not collect any fee

    for any of the NSTP components except basic tuition fees, whichshall not be more than fifty percent (50%)of what is currentlycharged by schools per unit.

    In the case of the ROTC, the DND shall formulate and adopt aprogram of assistance and/or incentive tothose students who willtake the said component.

    The school authorities concerned, CHED and TESDA shall ensurethat group insurance for health and

    accident shall be provided for students enrolled in any of theNSTP components.

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    SECTION 9. Scholarships. There is hereby created a SpecialScholarship Program for qualified students

    taking the NSTP which shall be administered by the CHED andTESDA. Funds for this purpose shall be

    included in the annual regular appropriations of the CHED andTESDA.

    SECTION 10. Management of the NSTP Components. The schoolauthorities shall exercise academic andadministrative supervisionover the design, formulation, adoption and implementation of thedifferent

    NSTP components in their respective schools. Provided, That incase a CHED or TESDA accreditednon-government organization (NGO)has been contracted to formulate and administer a training modulefor

    any of the NSTP components, such academic and administrativesupervision shall be exercised jointly with

    that accredited NGO. Provided, further, that such trainingmodule shall be accredited by the CHED and


    The CHED and TESDA regional offices shall oversee and monitorthe implementation of the NSTP undertheir jurisdiction to determineif the trainings are being conducted in consonance with theobjectives of this

    Act. Periodic reports shall be submitted to the CHED, TESDA andDND in this regard.

    SECTION 11. Creation of the National Service Reserve Corps.There is hereby created a National Service

    Reserve Corps, to be composed of the graduates of the non-ROTCcomponents. Members of this Corps

    may be tapped by the State for literacy and civic welfareactivities through the joint effort of the DND,

    CHED and TESDA.

    Graduates of the ROTC shall form part of the Citizens ArmedForce, pursuant to Republic Act No. 7077.

    SECTION 12.Implementing Rules. The DND, CHED and TESDA shallhave the joint responsibility for

    the adoption of the implementing rules of this Act.

    These three (3) agencies shall consult with other concernedgovernment agencies, the PASUC and

    COCOPEA, NGOs and recognized student organizations in draftingthe implementing rules.

    The implementing rules shall include the guidelines for theadoption of the appropriate curriculum for each

    of the NSTP components as well as for the accreditation of thesame.

    SECTON 13. Transitory Provision. Students who have yet tocomplete the Basic ROTC, except those

    falling under section 14 of this Act, may either continue in theprogram component they are currently

    enrolled or shift to any of the other program components oftheir choice: Provided, that in case he shifts toanother-programcomponent, the Basic ROTC courses he has completed shall be countedfor the purpose of

    completing the NSTP requirement: Provided, further, that once hehas shifted to another program

    component, he shall complete the NSTP in that component.

    SECTION 14. Suspension of ROTC Requirement. The completion ofROTC training as a requisite forgraduation is hereby set aside forthose students who despite completing all their academic units asof the

    effectivity of this Act have not been allowed to graduate.

    SECTION 15. Separability Clause. If any section or provision ofthis Act shall be declared

    unconstitutional or invalid, the other sections or provisionsnot affected thereby shall remain in full force

    and effect.

    SECTION 16. Amendatory Clause. Section 35 of Commonwealth ActNo.1, Executive Order No. 207 of1939, sections 2 and 3 ofPresidential Decree No.1706, and sections 38 and 39 of Republic ActNo. 7077,

    as well as all laws, decrees, orders, rules and regulations andother issuances inconsistent with theprovisions of this Act arehereby deemed amended and modified accordingly.

    SECTION 17. Effectivity. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15)days after its publication in two (2)

    newspapers of national circulation, but the implementation ofthis Act shall commence in the school year of


    The National Service Reserve Corps (NSRC)

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    Section 11 of RA 9163 of the National Service Training ProgramAct of 2001, specifically

    provides for the creation of a National Service reserve Corps(NSRC), composed of graduates of the non-

    ROTC components: the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) andLiteracy Training Service (LTS).

    Members of this Corps maybe tapped by the State of literacy andcivic welfare activities, through the jointefforts of DND, CHED andTESDA.

    1. Mission

    To provide a trained and motivated manpower pool that can betapped by the State for civic welfare,

    literacy and other similar endeavors in the service of thenation.

    2. Functions

    a. To assist in the disaster preparedness, mitigation, responseand rehabilitation programs;

    b. To serve as an auxiliary to the Disaster Coordinating Council(DCC) response units;

    c. To assist in the promotion of civic welfare activities;

    d. To assist in the implementation of literacy programs;

    e. To assist in socio-economic development;

    f. To assist in environmental protection; and

    g. To perform other similar endeavors.

    3. Composition

    The NSRC shall be composed of the graduates of the Civil WelfareTraining Service (CWTS) and LiteracyTraining Service (LTS)components of the NSTP.

    4. Organization

    The NSRC is organized under the umbrella of the NationalDisaster Coordinating Council (NDCC). It shall

    have a national, regional, provincial and city/ municipal levelof organization parallel to the Disaster

    Coordinating Council (DCC) structures at all levels. The DCCcenters shall serve as the headquarters of the

    NSRC at respective level of organization. Its National Centershall be based at the NDCC DisasterPreparedness Center, CampGeneral Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City. A secretariat at all levelsshall be

    organized and composed of representatives from CHED andTESDA.

    5. Inter-Agency Relationship of the NSRC Concerned Agencies


    RDCC Regional Disaster Coordinating CouncilPDCC ProvincialDisaster Coordinating Council

    CDCC City Disaster Coordinating CouncilMDCC Municipal DisasterCoordinating Council

    BDCC Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council

    CHEDRO CHED Regional Office

    TESDA RO TESDA Regional Office

    TESDA PO TESDA Provincial Office

    HEI Higher Educational Institution

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    2. Regional Offices:

    (a) Prepare consolidated Regional list of CWTS and LTS graduatesfrom HEIs and in the case of

    TESDA from the Provincial Office to the schools, for submissionto CHED/TESDA Central


    (b) Coordinate with RDCC (OCD RCs) on matters relative to NSRCconcerns;

    (c) Maintain a Directory of CWTS and LTS graduates forreference;

    (d) Prepare reports as maybe required; and

    (e) Do related work.

    3. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), TESDA ProvincialOffices and Schools:

    (a) Prepare and submit a certified masterlist with completeaddresses and contact numbers, of

    CWTS and LTS graduates to respective Regional Offices. In thecase of TESDA, the same shall

    be submitted through its Provincial Offices;

    (b) Provide information on CWTS and LTS graduates as may beofficially requested by authorizedconcerned agencies;

    (c) Coordinate with PDCC/CDCC/MDCC/BDCC, as the case may be, onmatters relative to

    NSRC; and

    (d) Do related work.

    4. NSRC Members:

    (a) Report to the call of NSRC for training and respondimmediately for utilization incase ofdisasters/calamities and otherrelevant socio-economic service concerns as the needs arise,through

    its Centers (RDCC/PDCC/CDCC/MDCC/BDCC) nearest the membersresidence and/or

    workplace at the time of the call; and

    (b) Register at the said Center and get instructions/briefingfor specific duties and responsibilities.


    The Civic Welfare Training Service Program (CWTSP) Component ofNSTP:

    An Option of Colegio de San Juan de Letran

    A. Life of St. Dominic de Guzman: Founder of the Order ofPreachers

    St. Dominic de Guzman was born in Calaruega, Spain in 1170 froman illustrious family of Don Felix de

    Guzman and Doa Joana de Aza. He began his studies for thepriesthood at the University of Palencia.

    During an outbreak of famine, he sold his precious books andgave the money he earned to the poor.

    He was ordained priest in 1195 and performed his priestly dutiesas Canon in Osma, Soria, Spain. In 1206,

    he decided to stay in Narbonne and undertook the mission of theConversion of the Albigenses. He

    founded the community of nuns at Prouille which he made as hisbase of operations. He established the

    new community at Toulouse which is considered as the cradle ofthe Dominican Order.

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    In 1216, Pope Honorious III confirmed the Order of Preachers(O.P.) after which St. Dominic dispersed

    the brethren to the Theological centers of Christendom. He diedin 1221 at Bologna on the feast of St.

    Sixtus. He was elevated to the altar by Pope Gregory IX in1234.

    B. Life of San Vicente Liem dela Paz: The Colegios ForemostAlumnus

    Vicente arrived in Manila from Tongkin (Vietnam) on May 21,1947. He was 16 years of age. He enrolledon the same day as one ofthe six scholars from Vietnam under the Patronato of the King ofSpain. He was

    an intern student.

    From the time of his arrival to the opening of school year1747-1748, Vicente studied the intricacies of the

    Spanish language. Once classes opened, he joined the cursoinfimo whose students were known as

    escolapios. Vicente was so bright and diligent that in threeyears he learned Latin and spoke Spanish to

    perfection and passed with high marks all the subjects of theLatinidad and Philosophy courses.

    After graduation, he continued in Letran, but this time it wasto help the students with their

    lessons. He was enrolled in the University of Santo Thomas forthe higher Philosophy and Theology

    courses. He completed these superior courses in another threeyears. And then left Letran for Santo

    Domingo convent to enter the religious life and prepare himselffor the priesthood.Vicente was missed very much when he leftLetran. He was so good and understanding to his

    companions, most condescending in games, very punctual in hisobligations and above all, very diligent in

    his studies. He became a model to others. He tutored the slowlearners and acted as an assistant to the

    superior after the decano. This position was reserved to thebrightest student but there was a ruling thatonly Spaniards orFilipinos could be appointed. Vicente took this ruling in strideand in no manner

    changed his humble disposition and attitudes.

    He then joined the Dominican Order and on September 9, 1754 andmade his religious profession. After

    four years, he was ordained to the priesthood and in 1758 leftfor Tongkin (Vietnam), his homeland.

    When Vicente left the Philippines and returned to his nativecountry, Christianity was being cruelly

    persecuted. For fifteen years he worked among his countrymen,preaching the Gospel and bringing

    comfort to the oppressed Christians.

    On September 9, 1954, he received the Dominican habit at theSanto Domingo Convent. After 4 years, he

    went back to Tonking, where Chistians were being cruellypersecuted. There, he spent days and nights giving spiritualdirection and administering the sacraments. Someone revealed hisactivities to the

    authorities and he was immediately arrested together with Fr.Jacinto Castaneda, a Spanish-Dominican.

    They were put into a cage like animals. The King was disposed tobe lenient for he was not a foreigner but

    Vicente pleaded that there should be one judgment for priests,whether foreign or native. They accused him

    of treason and the King pronounced the death sentence.

    Vicente was tied to the stakes and beheaded on November 7, 1773.Before he died, Vicente gave thanks to

    God for the victory that had recently been granted to him.

    A short time later, the news of the martyrdom of Vicente reachedLetran. There was sadness and joy.

    Sadness because a son had been killed; joy because he died theglorious death of a martyr of the faith.

    It appears that Vicente wanted to continue making his presencefelt in Letran. Immediately after his

    marytrdom, the Christians kept some parts of his body forrelics. One of the major relics - a humeral bone

    - was sent to Letran. This relic has been the center ofveneration throughout all these years, specially

    during college day celebrations when the students and alumnihonor him as their foremost alumnus andheavenly patron.

    When Saint Pope Pius X beatified him in 1906, the Letrancommunity put up a marble monument in one of

    the quadrangles of the college. This monument was destroyedduring the war. In 1953, another statue was

    put up. It stands as a beacon for students and alumni toemulate.

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    Would Saint Dominic and San Vicente be relevant in our day andage?

    The reply is a categorical: YES!

    - they would still be the friars who spoke only to God or aboutGod,

    - they would continue to cry out during their vigils: Lord, whatwill become of sinners?

    -they would be sensitive to and filled with compassion for theafflicted, the poor and the down-trodden;

    - they would live in accordance with the teaching of Vatican IIwhich states that religious give

    witness to their poverty by working for their living;

    - they would use modern means for communication andtransportation in their preaching


    - they would preach against all forms of injustice and insist onrestitution as they did to usurers

    of their time.

    - they would urge those who have to make sacrifices to helpthose who have not;

    - they would respect the competence of women to work in and forthe Church;

    - they would show confidence in the ability of their fellowmen;

    - they would visit and endeavor to help those in prison;

    - they would proclaim their trust in the youth of this age.

    History of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

    The Colegio de San Juan de Letran emerged from the fusion of twosimilar institutions both located in


    The first was founded in 1620 by Don Geronimo Guerrero, aretired Spanish Officer, who transformed his

    hermitage home into an orphanage called the Colegio de NinosHuerfanos de San Juan de Letran. Itspurpose was to educate and tomold orphans into good Christian citizens.

    At about the same time, another institution by the name ofColegio de Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo

    was established by the Dominican brother Diego de Santa Maria atthe Convent of Sto. Domingo.

    The founders of these two institutions with identical origin andpurpose did not only share a commonconcern for the children ofIntramuros but they were also linked by the strong bond offriendship. It was

    not surprising therefore that their two institutions were mergedinto one even in their lifetime in 1630 and

    became known simply as the Colegio de San Juan de Letran.

    The name San Juan de Letran was inspired from the major Basilicaof Saint John Lateran in Rome, mother

    of all Christian churches. Early in the history of the College,its chapel was granted many of the privileges

    enjoyed by the major Basilica. St. John the Baptist for whom theBasilica is named, is also the patron saint

    of the College.

    In 1690, Letran was declared an ecclesiastical college. In 1738,six scholarships were granted by the King

    of Spain for Chinese, Japanese, and Tongkinese (Vietnamese)students. Saint Vicente Liem de la Paz was

    among the students who enjoyed this scholarship.

    A royal decree of May 1865 pronounced Letran as a College of thefirst class. The school's curriculum was

    reviewed and revised according to European and American patternsin 1886. Further expansion took

    place in 1894 and adjustments were made with the arrival of theAmericans in 1900.

    In 1937, a three-storey building replaced the old structure. Thegrowth of the College was temporarily

    arrested when the building was bombed in 1941 and then turnedinto a garrison by the Japanese army in

    1994. The College was temporarily housed in the Dominican churchand convent of San Juan del Monte.After the war in 1946, Letranreturned to its home in Intramuros.

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    Education is self-initiated and self- motivated process. Itoccurs in the learner and ends in the learner. The

    teacher is but a facilitator of learning.

    Education is about learning to learn, to live, to love, and toleave a legacy.

    The Heritage of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

    Letran started from a very humble beginning as an orphanagecatering to the orphans of

    Intramuros. Its purpose was to educate and mold the children ofIntramuros to become good Christian

    citizens.After 400 years of existence, Letran has formed pioussaints and martyrs. Letran's most illustrious

    alumnus is St. Vicente Liem dela Paz, O.P. Other Alumni who weremartyred for their faith as they

    propagated the teachings of Christ in Japan were Bld. VicenteShiwosuka dela Cruz, O.P., Bld. Jacobo

    Kyushu Tomanaga, O.P., Bld. Pedro de Sta. Maria, O.P., Bld.Tomas de San Jacinto and Bld. Francisco

    Shoyemon de San Jose.

    Most heroes and leaders of our country, who have guided ourpeople in converting the country's

    agony into glory, have been cradled from the bosom of theColegio. From the ranks of heroes and patriots

    came Antonio Regidor, Apolinario Mabini, Emilio Jacinto, FelipeAgoncillo, Fr. Jacinto Zamora, Fr. Jose

    Burgos, Gen. Manuel Tinio, Gen. Artemio Ricarte, Gen. Gregoriodel Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, thePardo de Taveras and a host ofothers. From the servants of the Filipino people came EmilioAguinaldo,Manuel Quezon, Sergio Osmena, Sr., Jose Laurel andnumerous Letranites in public service.

    Deus . . . Patria . . . Letran. In propagating and living thefaith, in the struggle for honor, valor and

    glory of the nation, Letran losts her sons. But from the painfulgrief she rose victorious, radiant and

    jubilant. Through the centuries, her magnificense will shine inhow she molded her children. She will be

    perpetuated on how her children have influenced the lives ofother people. Her legacy to her children . . .

    the power to uplift himself and humanity in mind, body andspirit!

    The Mission-Vision of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

    The goal of education is the total integral formation of thehuman person that would lead him to

    attain the purpose for which he was created, union with God,community with others and harmony with

    creation. Letran, characterized by the formation of the youth,is guided by her Vision-Mission:


    We, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, a Dominican institutionof learning, commit ourselves to

    the quality formation of integral human persons in our nobletradition of excellence and the supreme ideal

    of Deus, Patria, Letran. Specifically, we endeavor to form theLetran Community to become:

    - staunch defenders of the Church;

    - faithful devotees of Mary;

    - ardent lovers of Truth;

    - dynamic builders and leaders of communities; and

    - development of self-reliant communities.


    By 2020, we envision a Christ-inspired, nationally-responsiveand globally competitive Colegio de San

    Juan de Letran at the threshold of being a University, evidencedby quality academic standard, strongresearch culture and sustainedcommunity service. Specifically, we see Letran as a leading centeron the:

    - creative use and applicant of information and communicationstechnology in education;

    - values-oriented communication and media education;

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    - historical studies and research, particularly on Intramuros;and

    - development of self-reliant communities.

    Institutional Core Values of the Colegio de San Juan deLetran

    We, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran remains resolute in ourinstitutional core values. Theseprovide us intense focus anddistinct direction:

    1. Spiritualism (Love for God)

    Our strong faith in God and filial devotion to the BlessedVirgin Mary give us an unbreakable bond that

    unifies us. We are vigorous in adhering to truth. We recognizethe principles and tenets of the Catholic

    Church to be the basis of our integrity, ethics andmorality.

    2. Patriotism (Love for Country)

    We are committed in assisting the nation by sharing ourresources and capabilities. The passion to serve

    the less privileged sectors of the society overflows in ourspirit. Social awareness and responsibility always

    exist in the mainstream of our thoughts. We understand theimportance of fellowship and charity among

    individuals and thereby promote cooperation and harmony toward aprogressive community.

    3. Letranism (Love for Alma Mater)

    We cherish the many years spent in Colegio de San Juan deLetran, home for our mind and body, and

    where human values were imbibed and skills honed all to prepareus for a meaningful and noble

    Christian life. In deep gratitude, we pledge our loyalty to theColegio. We are proud of her history and

    legacies. We continuously strive for excellence in our pursuitof knowledge and wisdom and commit tospread her ideals and values.In all our endeavors, we conduct ourselves with grace and nobility.We

    venture to conquer new glories for her honor and promise toalways remember our dear Alma Mater,


    Part II. The Civic Welfare Training Service Program of theColegio de San Juan de Letran

    The Civic Welfare Training Service Program as an Option of theColegio de San Juan de Letran

    Letran, in opting the CWTSP, will facilitate the total integralformation of the human personthrough a program designed to preparethe youth, the students, for their bounden duties as citizens ofthe

    country and children of the Holy Mother Church. Letranrecognizes that its students are valuable resources

    and are instruments of cultural change and progress forindividuals as well as society. Letran's CWTSP

    will provide the students knowledge and skills that they maycontribute to nation building. It will provide

    the students the experience of community (pakikipagkapwa), forthis makes us Filipinos distinct from any

    other race in the world. The students will become persons:

    1. Who actively participate in the affairs of the Church and theState;

    2. Who are respected leaders in society;

    3. Who work for the betterment of the marginalized members ofthe community; and

    4. Whose altruism is manifested in their active concern forothers.

    In Letrn's CWTSP, the recognition of the youth's contribution tonation building is given dueimportance. Inspired by the youngLetranites who fought for the liberation of our nation, Aguinlado,Fr.

    Burgos, Jacinto and others, Letran, through its CWSTP, willimpress in the minds of the students the value

    of social responsibility. Through the CWTSP, students' awarenessto local and national issues will be

    increased, and deepen their commitment and involvement to socialtransformation.

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    1. Manuel Luis Quezon

    Manuel Luis Quezon (1878-1944) was born on September 19, 1878 inBaler, Tayabas Province. He was

    the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines(1935-1944). While a law student, he joined

    (1899) Emilio Aguinaldos insurrectionary army and fought theU.S. forces until 1901. He was imprisoned

    after the insurrection.

    Admitted to the bar (1903), he was elected governor of TayabasProvince (1905), renamed Quezon in his

    honor (1946). As a member of the first Philippine Assembly(1907-1909), he became floor leader of the

    majority nationalist party.

    He served as resident commissioner to the United States(1909-1916), crusading tirelessly for Philippine

    independence and was instrumental in securing the passage of theJones Act (1916), which increased self-

    government in the Philippines and gave the islands a pledge forfuture independence.

    On his return to the Philippines, he was elected to the firstPhilippine Senate (1916) and was unanimouslychosen president of thebody - at the time the highest elective office in the land. Hecontinued his ardent

    crusade for independence, strongly opposing the high-handedadministration of Governor-general

    Leonard Wood (1921-1927), and after Woods death effecting theappointment of the more sympathetic

    Henry Stimson. He helped bring about the passage of theTydings-McDuffie Bill, which established theCommonwealth of thePhilippines and promised complete independence in 1946.

    Quezon was elected president of the New Commonwealth (1935). Aspresident, he initiated administrative

    reforms, undertook many defense measures and greatly expandedhis power.

    Re-elected in 1941, he escaped to the United States after theJapanese invasion of the Philippines in World

    War II and conducted a government-in-exile there until his deathon August 1, 1944.

    2. Apolinario Mabini

    Called the Sublime Paralytic and the Brain of the Revolution,Apolinario Mabini was born on July

    23, 1864 in Barrio Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas. Even at a youngage, he exhibited signs of intellectual

    superiority. He finished law in spite of his poverty (1895).

    Scholars also called him the Black Chamber of President EmilioAguinaldo for he penned most of the

    latters decrees and order that are now part of our countrystradition of jurisprudence. Mabini wrote the

    original statutes of the Katipunans Kartilya (Aguinaldostranslation of Mabinis work was composed for

    the sake of the unlettered members of the Katipunan.

    Mabini served in various capacities in the reformistorganizations like La Liga Filipina and Cuerpo de

    Comprimisarios. During the period of the Philippine Republic, heserved as its President of the Council of

    Secretaries as well as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Unwaveringin his stand against colonial occupationof the Philippines, he wascaptured and then exiled to the lonely outpost of Agana, Guam.Together with

    Gen. Artemio Ricarte, he was among those who withstood allefforts to break their will against colonial

    rule in the Philippines.

    Returning to the Philippines (1902), he turned down all offersby the colonial authorities for him to

    serve in their government. He returned to his humble abode inNagtahan, Sta. Ana, Manila. The

    cholera epidemic that ravaged Manila (1903) led to his death onMay 13, 1903.


    The Community We Belong: Understanding Community Needs

    Part I. An Overview of the Present Condition of the Country

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    An Overview of the Philippine Economy

    The Philippine economy has been restructured and developedwithin the context of the global

    free trade agenda of the superpowers in the colonial andpost-colonial periods. From the indigenous, self-

    subsistent agriculture, agri-plantations were enforced by theSpanish crown to support the Galleon Trade

    and supply the domestic food needs of the Spanish army andbureaucracy. This was sustained and

    modernized by the American government through the entry ofAgricultural-Trans National Corporations(Agri-TNCs) and incollaboration with big native landowners. TNC exploitations ofagricultural resourcesexpanded to the forest and mineralsectors.

    In the post-colonial period, the free-trade-oriented economicrestructuring continued mainly

    through the installation of U.S. and free-trade-friendlyPhilippine governments which provide the policy

    environment favorable to such agenda, e.g., Parity Rights,Bell-Trade Act, US-RP Treaty of General


    In the onset of the 20 th century market crisis in the advancedeconomies characterized by

    overproduction (goods and capital) against the backdrop ofgrowing labor and citizen militancy in these

    economies due to the deterioration of living conditions, thetrans nationalization of production andinvestments have become moreaggressive to inferior economies like the Philippines. Incollaboration with

    the government and Filipino elite (big landowners and business,TNCs and superpowers have been granted

    the liberty to dump surplus products (including those that arebanned in their own countries); and put up

    dirty and extractive industries and other labor-intensivesemi-processing industries with cheap and docilelabor offered bythe government as come-ons.

    In the process of such historical restructuring of thePhilippine economy, the agrarian problem

    (inequitable distribution of lands and allocation of productionresources), mass unemployment,

    underdevelopment of the basic production sectors orunderdevelopment in general, take roots.As the country becomes moreand more dependent on foreign investments and international

    financing, it becomes more subservient to the dictates andpolicy instigations of the superpowers and super-

    economies. The nation and its people consistently lose sovereignpowers over the country, resources and


    We take a look on the present condition of the country:

    1. Employment Problems

    Full time workers (working at least 40 hours/ week) decreasedfrom 17.0 million of April 2000 to 17.1million of April 2001. Thoseworking for less than 40 hours/ week increased from 9 million atlast year to

    11.3 this year.All 14 regions posted a double-digit unemploymentrate with Metro Manila posting the highest at 17.7%

    and Cagayan Valley the lowest at 10.3%.

    The Department of Labor and Employment received notices ofclosure and retrenchment within the first six

    months from 1, 314 manufacturing companies in Manila. This isexpected to cause the retrenchmentof 32, 576 workers.

    The rate of employment generation cannot cope effectively withthe growth rate of the labor force. From

    January to September 2001, 52,468 workers (roughly 199 workersper day) were displaced resulting from

    closures and retrenchment.

    2. Productivity and Income Problems

    In the agricultural sector where the majority of theeconomically poor depends, the

    farmers (landless, small-medium owner, cultivators in thelowlands, uplands and

    indigenous areas), consistently experience decline inproductivity and income due to the

    spiraling cost of production and technology against the backdropof market pricemanipulated by chains of traders who are alsoproviders of rural credit. The inferiority of

    the marginal farmers production tools and technology and theirlack of access to land,

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    credit, irrigation and post- harvest facilities make them lesscompetitive with the products

    of corporate farms and those of the agricultural imports.

    Fisherfolks also experience similar decline in productivity andincome as they lost their traditional fishing

    grounds to commercial fishers whose production tools, technologyand capital are far superior. Over fishing

    has consistently caused the decline in fish production,particularly in municipal waters. Municipal water

    fish production rate posted a negative average of 2.9% annuallyfrom 1987-1994.

    3. Natural Resources and Environment Problems

    Environmental problems aggravate the productivity and incomedeficiency of the poor. The rapid depletion

    of the countrys natural resources consistently constricts themarginal agricultural producers.

    In 1575, total forest cover was 27.5 million hectares of about92% of the total land area with a rate of

    deforestation of 22, 917 hectares per year. In 1995, forestcover stood at 5.6 million hectares or about

    18.6% of the total land area with a deforestation rate of 120,000 hectares per year. The situation spells

    calamities and disasters that impact adversely on the ecosystem,e.g., on lands and waters. In 1994, landsclassified as agriculturallands stood at 13 million hectares more than half of which weredevoted to rice

    and corn. As consequence of deforestation, approximately 2.9million hectares have been eroded. The

    countrys gross erosion rate stands at 2, 046 MMT/ year withgrassland and agricultural lands registering

    the highest rates of 76% and 23% respectively.

    4. Rising Cost of Living

    Against the backdrop of spiraling cost of living, the povertysituation and difficulties of the poor worsen.

    The series of oil price hikes in 2000 for instance, jacked upprices of other commodities. The hikes have

    caused 10% price increase for every kilowatt-hour of electricityconsumption; 9% and 6% fare increases for

    buses and jeepneys, respectively; 2% increase in the overallproduction cost of industries; .11% and 10%

    increase in rice and corn household expenditures,respectively.

    5. Inaccessible Basic Social Services

    More and more poor families have been incapacitated to providethe socio-cultural needs of their householdmembers, especially thechildren, youth, aged and other social dependents. From schoolyears 1991-1992

    to 1999-2000, the national average elementary enrollments stoodat 11.4 million. On the other hand,average high school enrollmentin the same period stood at 4.7 million. More and more children areunable

    to pursue higher education.

    The top notifiable diseases and causes of deaths would closelyassociate with poverty. From 1994-1996,

    topping the list are reported cases of diarrhea, bronchitis,tuberculosis, pnuemonia, influenza and heart

    disease with combined average of 630,000 cases annually. Thesame cases in the same period also topped

    the list of death causes with a combined average of 19,342deaths annually. Availability and accessibility

    of health services has been problematic on account that thetotal number of hospitals in the country stood at

    1,794 (1999) or roughly 1 hospital for every 36,000 people. Thetotal number of government doctors was2,848 (1998) or roughly 1doctor for every 22,800 people.

    Overview of the Philippine Politics

    In the realm of politics that may be simplified as the socialrelations of peoples (e.g., governors-

    governed, social leaders-constituents, dominant-subordinategroups, public-corporate-civil societies, etc.),

    the problems have been identified as:

    1. Graft and Corruption

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    Graft and corruption have become institutions in government asthey have been practiced in practically all

    levels of government including the countrys highest office. Theyhave so gross to infect and contaminate

    even the institutions of learning that is supposed to mold andform values of the people especially the

    youths for good and responsible citizenship; or the military andpolice agencies that are supposed to

    discipline, reform or prevent persons in engaging in criminalacts and other anti-social practices. Graft &corruption havebecome too endemic that the government is losing its moralascendancy to lead its

    constituents to the extent that it tends to deceive, bribe orcoerce the people to submit to its rule. As thisoccur in the socialrelationship between the governors and the governed, socialdisorder becomes a natural

    cause of unpeace or the deterioration of just peace. Otherpolitical issues like nepotism, dynastism, and

    vote-buying and election fraud could be correlated with theproblem on graft & corruption. Graft and

    corruption is systematic in government. This situation isfurther maintained by the ineptitude of the justice

    system (judicial branch) to prosecute and convict violators ofthe Anti-Corrupt Act and Practices Law.

    The same is true with the rising organized crimes such asdrug-trafficking, kidnap-for-ransom, robbery,

    extortion, bribery, etc. Law enforcement has been made inutilein curbing criminality due to the alleged

    deep involvement of the some law enforcers, public officials andinfluential and affluent members of the

    society. There is even strong reason to believe that electoralcampaigns of a number of government

    officials are mainly supported by crime monies.

    2. Political Marginalization

    The political marginalization of the poor is a dominantphenomenon in the Philippine politics and

    governance. The nature and composition of government ispredominantly elite in practically all branches

    and levels. Though there has been a continuing trend of civilsocietys entry or collaboration within, it

    could not yet meaningfully alter the elitist agenda of thegovernment. Though it allows democratic space

    for the people to air their grievances and social appealsthrough consultations and legitimate street actions,

    these could not yet effectively influence decisions and socialpolicy development.

    On the side of the people (the unorganized and even portions ofthe organized), the level of politicalmaturity is low relative tocritical and informed participation in political affairs. Thoughthere are other

    factors to consider relative to their political consciousnessand actions, they are crucial in the political

    equation as they are vulnerable to manipulate in the politicalof the traditional and elite politicians.

    The intensification of the economic and political crisis alsointensifies social conflicts based on the

    competition in the allocation of wealth and power. Marginalfarmers, lowland and upland including

    indigenous peoples complete with agro-corporations and TNCs inthe access and use of land and natural

    resources. Marginal fisherfolk complete with big local andforeign fishing companies in the exploitation ofsea and marineresources. Urban poor communities battle against land developers,workers against

    employers and even gangsters and crime syndicates against eachother.

    The social crisis even intensifies the long-running antagonisticpolitical conflict between the government

    and the armed challengers such as the MILF and the NDF.

    The electoral system and the form of government have beendesigned to maintain elite politics. The

    traditional system of election leaves very little space for thepoor to either participate in the electoral

    contest or meaningfully choose candidates who would prove asreal champions and representatives of the

    poor. At this juncture, the social action network needs toseriously evaluate whether the presidential formof government orother forms would be more responsive and facilitate toparticipatory politics and


    The maintenance of elite politics and all its other negativecharacters is ensured by the support and

    sponsorship of superpowers and super-economies that have greateconomic and political interest in the

    country or in the region. The wide unorganized portion of thepopulation, particularly the poor and the

    middle class, further ensured the maintenance of elite politics.With a low level of political consciousnessand maturity, they areless critical of graft and corruption in government or theanti-people social policy

    decisions and are even easily vulnerable to manipulations oftraditional politicians and other elite groups.

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    The social exclusion of the poor in the sharing of politicalpower resulted in their marginalization in the

    distribution and allocation of economic resources, andvice-versa.

    An Overview of the Philippine Culture

    In the socio-cultural scene, the social crisis affects thecontinuing moral decadence and value

    distortions. We can see these in the following socialmanifestations.

    At one point, these could be seen as products and effects of thesocial crisis. Incidence of the anti-

    social activities, immorality, and criminality rise as more andmore people lose their capacity to cope withthe crisis. At anotherpoint, the cultural crisis has become systematic reinforcing andintensifying the

    economic and political crisis. The people, particularly theunorganized majority, tends to be more tolerant

    and apathetic to the situation and indifferent to the strugglefor social change.

    The law of the jungle the fittest survives has become thedominant social rule. It tends to build

    on the capacity of people to complete than to cooperate tosurvive.

    In finding the major reasons of the above social realities, wecan identify causes at the micro andmacro levels. Micro levelcauses would be social practices and social relations occurringwithin an

    immediate environment that result either to positive or negativesituations or effects social facilities ordifficulties to themember of society or community.

    Macro level causes on the other hand would be social policiesand traditions institutionalized at

    the global environment by dominant social institutions thateither maintain or demolish the micro level

    causes of the problematic social realities.

    Pertaining to poverty as indicated unemployment, productivity& income problems of the poor in

    both the rural and urban sectors and insufficient basic socialservices delivery in their communities.

    1. At the micro level:

    The marginalized sectors lack the appropriate education,knowledge, skills/technology to posses acompetitive edge in theemployment (salary/wages) market.

    There is gross non-compliance to minimum wage law by companiesand violations of workers right to

    security of tenure (due to labor contractualization practices)and right to unionize and collectively bargain

    (due to no union, no strike policies, particularly in theEPZAs).

    The more enterprising poor (own account workers/informal sectora substantial portion in what the

    government considers employed) posses inferior capital andtechnology in a highly liberalized marketcompetition.

    The marginalized farmers, fisherfolk and IPS do not have full ormeaningful access to and control of land,

    capital, production and post-production technology andultimately trade and pricing. In many cases, their

    productivity and income are adversely affected by aggressivedevelopment projects, e.g. urbanization, land

    use conversion (circumventing the CARP), industrial orinfrastructure projects) that either dislocate them or

    further deny them of the resource base. Moreover, theTHC-instigated crop conversion (through agro-plantations orcontract-growing and lately the introduction of bio-technology)further erodes the marginalproducers competitive edge in theeconomic cycle.

    The productivity and income problems of the poor are aggravatedmore strategically (long-term sense) by

    convention or chemical-based farming, destructive and abusivefishing practices, dirty and extractive

    industries that destroy and deplete natural and productionresources.

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    The rising cost of living (increasing prices of basiccommodities including social services) is caused by

    price deregulation that allows price manipulation and budgetarycuts in the budget for social services.

    2. At the macro level:

    The intensifying economic crisis that impoverish the Filipinomajority can be attributed to the

    underdevelopment of the countrys economic sectors particularlyagriculture and industry. Agriculturaldevelopment is hindered byagrarian problem where the direct producers do not have meaningfulaccess to

    and control of lands, credit, technology and markets. This,against the backdrop of a rapidly growing rural

    population, incapacitates the agricultural/rural economy toabsorb or provide jobs resulting in excessivelabor surplus.

    The industrial sector, being underdeveloped, cannot provide jobsto the labor surplus. Those who migrated

    to urban areas to look for jobs end up in slum areas doingmenial livelihood activities. The growth of the

    urban poor population has been rapid that comprise the bulk ofthe informal sector. Most being unskilled

    labor, they do not have the competitive edge in the employmentmarket. Some are lucky enough to be

    absorbed in construction industries that provide them inseasonal employment. Even those with academic

    qualification hardly find jobs and end up in the export labormarket. Those who cannot find overseasemployment are forced to takejobs for which they are overqualified.

    Industries, unlike agriculture can provide jobs 24 hours a daycontinuously in any seasons. It is therefore a

    crucial agenda in pursuing a strategic solution to theunemployment problem.

    Pursued based on agrarian development, nationalindustrialization can increase domestic productivity as

    well as strengthen the economys absorptive capacity to tap thegrowing labor force.

    As the economy is not able to produce machines that producemachines, the industrial sector cannot engage

    in value-added production of raw material agricultural outputs.Moreover, it cannot support themodernization needs of agriculture.Thus, agricultural products (crops, minerals, timber, sea andmarine

    products) are exported to feed the raw materials needs ofoverseas industries. On the other hand, the

    country imports for agricultural production, technology andcapital goods (machines) and even raw

    materials to run the countrys semi-processing industries. Withthe countrys entry into the WTO-GATT

    regime, even agricultural and consumer products have beenimported with the effect of further

    marginalizing our local producers.

    On one hand, the socio-political crises resulted to a culturalcrisis characterized by the distortion anderosion of positivesocial and moral values that used to bind Philippine society. Onthe other hand, values

    created from such distortion and erosion tends to reinforcerather than become a counter-force to the social


    The mainstream media and information technology (IT) which areowned by corporate proponents of

    market-oriented globalization have been effective channels inpromoting values, lifestyles and consumption

    patterns favorable to the market. Movies in particular, promotean escapist culture or hero-worship that

    defies the positive value of unity and collective action ofpeoples to solve social problems.

    The educational system, which is dominantly run by privateinvestors or financed by loans, has become

    commercialized. Such would be evidenced by the continuingtuition increases every school year. Anotherwould be the choice ofenrollment that heavily weighs in favor of courses that are moretechnical and

    closely associate with the needs of business corporations. Inschool year 1997-1998 for instance,

    population for Business Administration, Mathematics and ComputerScience, Engineering, Medical and

    allied courses were 620,681, 166,329, 299,226 and 164,784respectively. On the other hand, population of

    courses which are crucially important to social and humandevelopment like Humanities, Social and

    Behavioral Science, Natural Science and Agriculture, and relatedcourses were 9,394, 34,735, 21,914, and

    64,760 respectively.

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    Gross graft and corruption in government; the creation andimplementation of social policies that make

    more difficult the life of the poor; the practices ofcorporations that destroy the environment, dislocate or

    disintegrate poor communities; or deny the basic rights ofworkers; the involvement of law enforcers in

    organized crimes would be clear evidences of the worst valuedistortions happening in the countrys

    cultural and moral landscape.

    Influenced by distorted values against the backdrop of massivepoverty, the poor also develop the tendency

    to engage and indulge in anti-social activities, e.g., drugabuse and trafficking, prostitution rings, gambling

    syndicates and other organized crimes led by socially powerfuland influential personalities. Some othersengage in petty crimesand are usually the ones being caught and convicted swiftly. Drugtrafficking, in

    particular, would no longer be considered for microanalysis asit had grown into a global trade.

    There is close correlation between increasing crime incidenceand the worsening poverty situation. Crime

    increases when employment opportunities become unavailable. Inthe U.S. for instance, crime and random

    acts of violence is pervasive, but no amount of additionalprisons, no amount of executions of murderers

    and no amount of extra police equipment has stopped crime unlessthe basic economic structure that breeds

    poverty is positively changed. It is the same cause for Rwandancommercial sex workers to say it is betterto die of AIDS in tenyears than from hunger tomorrow

    Extreme poverty beyond rationalization tends to reactivateprejudices and biases that have been kept in

    peoples sub-consciousness during favorable times. This can be afactor in the increasing incidence of

    ethnic and religious conflicts (as in Mindanao), resurgence ofracism in OCW or immigrant-receiving

    countries or domestic violence against children and women.

    Part II. Community Mapping

    Definition of Community

    There are a number of ways to think about what a community is.The first, most obvious way is to

    think about it as a geographic area, a place with definedphysical boundaries. The most fundamental

    characteristic of these geographic communities is that they areplaces of residence. People are familiar with

    them because they live there.

    Some communities are defined by individuals' shared interests,activities, affection, or common

    identity. These characteristics differentiate them fromothers.

    People are usually members of a geographic as well as interestcommunities. The notion of

    geographic and interest or identificational can be seen in thedefinitions of the word community:

    Community - a group of individuals or families that sharecertain values, service,

    institutions, interests, or geographic proximity (Barker).

    Community - or a "sense of community" exists when two or morepeople work together

    toward the accomplishment of mutually desirable goals(Lofguist).

    Community - is a territorially bounded social system or set ofinterlocking or integrated

    functional subsystems (economic, political, religious, ethical,educational, legal, socializing,

    reproductive, etc.) serving a resident population plans thematerial culture or physical plant

    through which subsystems operate (Bernard).

    Community is an identifiable human grouping that ispredominantly informal in

    organization and interaction, heterogeneous in composition,enduring, and sharing some

    characteristics or attributes in common (M. Fernando).

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    7. To promote the national interests (population control).

    8. To develop infrastructure for multinational corporationsinterests or colonial power interests

    (introduction of the agricultural technological products of theMultinational Corporation, demolitions,

    relocations, and construction of physical structures on thecommunity territory).

    9. To preserve the ecological and genetic or biological heritageand indigenous technology andknowledge.

    10. To implement the programs of UN and various civil groupsfrom outside.

    11. To test or develop theories on community as well as toprovide information on consumer behavior in

    the community or to determine the feasibility of economicenterprises (academic).

    Our interest in community is to intervene in community towardits sustainable development and it


    1. To help the community identify its actual needs distinct fromthe felt needs.

    2. To improve its capabilities to solve its problems.

    3. To improve the human resources and potentials as well asnatural resources toward the improvement of

    conditions and quality of life in the community. This involvesthe localization of the benefits ofscience and technology andaffecting social integration, social organization, culturalproduction,

    political participation of the people and the peoples controlover economic processes.


    Community-building: A Community Development Challenge


    An honest reflection on the many local and national issues thatexist today can be intimidating,even discouraging. The presentFilipino community is beset with problems such as low level ofliving, low

    level of productivity, poor marketing system, oppressive andteneurial arrangements and practices,

    unemployment and underemployment, limited genuine supportfacilities for socio-economic development,

    poor health condition, low level of education, cultures ofsilence and poverty, personalized policies and

    community disorganization. These factors exist, and they play apart in shaping our society. But just as

    these limitations are facts of life, so too is our genuineconcern to those in need.

    The ultimate goal of development is "to improve the quality oflife." To achieve this goal of

    development, this requires an integrative process ofmobilization and the raising of the consciousness of the

    people and the building of community organizations. Thedevelopment process to be truly responsive,

    effective, equitable and sustainable, must be people-empowered,people-centered and towards community

    empowerment. Such empowerment implies that the decision-makingmust be given to the people involved,

    thereby incorporating into the development process their ownneeds and values (Dr. Vivian Gonzales, VIP-

    CWS, Laguna: Sikap Strive Foundation, 1997).Through communitydevelopment, the students together with the people in thecommunity

    develop a common feeling of solidarity and become aware thatthey can achieve positive changes not only

    for themselves but also for their community.

    Part I. Working Together through Community Development

    A Brief History of Community Development

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    Community development as a new discipline, grew out of an olderconcept community

    organization. In the 1950s a number of social scientists andeducators formed the American Council on the

    Community, a relatively short-lived organization whose purposewas the institutionalization of scattered

    efforts throughout the United States to improve Americancommunity life. This effort was built on the

    experience acquired during World War II when millions ofAmericans participated in volunteer efforts andorganized to dealwith local problems. This was the time when United Unions agenciesand the technical

    assistance programs of the West sought to help the developingcountries (Third World countries) movealong the road to economicprogress (modernization). Community development became one of themodels

    (strategies) employed toward the transformation. The termreceived so much attention and recognition not

    only in the developing world but also in the US that it came toreplace community organization even in

    the US. Programs to help the impoverished areas of Appalachia orlarge metropolitan centers were

    legislated into existence and were labeled either as CommunityDevelopment or Rural Development in the

    statutes. The essential feature was resource mobilization(people as well as material resources) at thecommunity level so asto introduce a better quality of life. It included, among others, anew kind of stock

    taking by local residents, the use of outside consultants ininterpreting the facts collected and in planning

    programs to meet the needs that were identified.

    In the 1960s over sixty countries either had well-formulatednational community development

    programs or were in the process of bringing them into existence.Leaders of nations in Africa, Central, and

    South America, and Asia/Pacific after World War II facedtremendous tasks of nation building. This was

    due to the long periods of colonization under European nationsfaced with large-scale problems andrelatively inadequateresource-utilization (low technical-know-how) national leadersembraced the idea of

    mobilizing local people carry out community projects. TheCommunity Development program of India, forexample, was set up toaid the inhabitants of 558,000 villages attain a higher social andmaterial level of

    well being. Multi-purpose village level workers, especiallytrained for this new challenge, met with the

    village people, helped them to recognize and identify theirneeds and potentials and offered technical and

    moral assistance to meet their needs. The technical assistancewas given by specialists in agriculture,

    animal husbandry, road building, irrigation, education, healthand sanitation, rural cooperatives, etc. The

    basic unit was the block which comprised 100 villages.

    Other countries, of course, worked out the kind of communitydevelopment programs best fitted totheir situation. The key commonelement to all countries was the thrust toward self-help andcommunal

    labor to undertake projects they considered important. Anycompensation of labor was often channeled

    through the local community authorities by the external fundingagencies so that other projects could befurther financed (e.g. thefood-for-work programs).

    These community development program were often fitted intonational five-year to ten year plans

    to ensure the allocation of sufficient resources to theseefforts at the grass-roots level. To many national

    leaders such programs seemed a way toward democratization anddecentralization of the political process;they gave local people afeeling of being involved in nation-building and showed that thecentral

    government was actually beginning to show an interest in theirwelfare. In recent years, however, the

    central government is found wanting in this direction becausethe interest in this approach begins to wane

    due to greater focus being placed on urban development at theexpense of rural development.Definition of the Concept

    There are many definitions of community development. Thedefinitions vary according to type of

    agency, the setting, the method of operation and the purpose ofthe agency. Despite their differences, theyshare certaincommonalities in their definitions.

    Thus, in defining the concept community development, theseelements are evident:

    a group of people;

    residing in a community;

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    reaching a decision;

    to initiate a social action process (planned intervention);

    in order to have a desirable change in their social, economic,political, cultural, or

    environmental situation.

    Community Development is a planned, organize and evolutionaryprocess whereby a group ofpeople with common aims, needs andaspirations come together to initiate social action in order toimprove

    their social, economic, political, cultural, and environmentalconditions.

    The term community development came into international usage toconnote the processes by

    which the efforts of people themselves are united with those ofgovernmental authorities to improve the

    economic, socialand cultural conditions of communities, tointegrate these communities into the life of the

    nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to nationalprogress.

    This complex of processes is made up of two essential elements:the participation of the people

    themselves in efforts to improve their level of living with asmuch reliance as possible on their own

    initiatives and the provision of technical and other services inways which encourage initiative, self-help,

    and mutual help and make them more effective in programsdesigned to achieve a wide variety of specific

    improvements such as health, environmental conservation etc.This definition was coined by the UnitedNations.

    The Aims and Objectives of Community Development

    Aim, is a term that is simply defined as a clearly directedpurpose. It is sometimes used

    interchangeably to mean objective or goal.

    In the context of Community Development, the words aim andobjectives are not easy to

    defined. However the aim of community development is refer to acommunity action. This does not help

    much to understand without referring to the reality of communitydevelopment practice.

    In reality the primary objective of community development is topromote, sustain, support and

    maintain community action.

    Apparently, community development is related to communityaction, just as education, is related

    to learning. Hence, in promoting community development thesemust be some kind of community action to

    initiate or to guide the promoter to carry out either social oreconomic activities to improve their welfare or

    to solve their real problems.

    In order to arrive at a simpler understanding of the aims andobjectives of community

    development, it may be worthwhile looking into the differenttypes of community development and their

    respective objectives. Looking at each of them will underlineboth their differences and similarities. From

    this standpoint, it may be possible to infer a general aim ofcommunity development through the synthesis

    of their common element.

    1. Community Work Type

    This can be regarded as a professional approach to communitydevelopment which has developed within

    the field of social work. It came into being in response toincreasing demand for social services for the age,

    the sick, the unemployed etc.

    The objective of this type of community development work ahsbeen given as the, giving of aid and

    support to people who need more control over their lives.


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    This is known the kampong-based type. The aim is towards thedevelopment of the potential of

    individual members of the target group. It stresses onself-reliance and participation to bring about

    desirable socioeconomic transformations. It also stresses oncultural exchange between Kampong in other

    countries to stimulate globalization.

    The Major Purposes of Community Development

    The overall purpose of community development is to help peopleemploy the rights methods toorganize self-help initiatives and todevelop techniques relevant to their own situation forsocio-economic

    and cultural progress.

    Specifically, community development:

    1. Is designed to meet the learning needs of significant groupsin the community e.g. community leaders or

    civic or special interest organizations.

    2. Enhance the ability of groups of individuals so that they canwork collectively to attain community

    social and economic goals.

    3. Teaches about matters relating to community or region,generally associated with social structures and

    public as well as private and voluntary enterprises.

    4. Emphasis on shaping infrastructure and social organizationalsupport through involvement in the

    legislative, including formal financial and businessenterprises.

    Basic Stages in the Community Development Process

    A process is something which has a beginning and an end, and ithappens over time. In the

    community development process, certain distinct stages areessential for its promotion. There are various

    listings of stages or steps in literature on communitydevelopment. But I shall somehow oversimplify ithere.

    1. The Problem Situation

    A situation may exist in a community which represents a need, aproblem, an opportunity, or a challenge toa community group, or tothe entire community. Usually it would be tackled as a communityproject.

    1. The Will To Do

    Through discussion, diffusion of ideas and with informationinput, the group involved may reach a point

    where it is beginning to form a will to do something aboutit.

    2. Organizing

    Some form of organization is established with a certain amountof commitment from individuals to some

    in-depth and specific thinking about the project.

    3. Getting to the People

    At this stage, the process moves to the general membership ofthe community. Information is diffused and

    educational work is undertaken community-wide. The potentialexists for conflict. Considerable discussion,

    and expression of viewpoints. General goals may become clear andsome commitments may be made.

    4. The Planning Process

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    If the project is blessed by legitimizers, the planning processwill begin. The definition of objectives,

    availability of options or alternatives, and availability ofresources may be assessed. The end result may be

    a plan to approach the project with specific information.

    5. Execution Phase

    Initiation of the projects is often an occasion to buildcommunity spirit and identity and to cementcommitment depending onthe project, it is often an important occasion in thecommunity.

    6. Evaluation

    Evaluation is an on going process (monitoring) but the finalassessment is undertaken upon completion of

    the project. Community members try to review their experiencefor strength and weaknesses. Theexperience gained may be used infuture community development projects.

    The Role of the Citizen and Change Agent in the CommunityDevelopment Process

    1. The Role of the Citizen

    The participation by the people of the community in the processis of fundamental importance. The need

    for understanding the root causes of our country'sunderdevelopment. Especially in the rural areas andcommittingourselves to its solution is imperative. Our concern for a ruralcommunity development affirms

    our belief in the need for change.

    However, some basic questions have to be raised:

    a. What kind of participation?

    b. Who are the participants?

    c. How do they participate?

    We all believe that people are the end and the means todevelopment, whether at the grassroots level or

    national level. At the community or grassroots level,participation is of prime importance. What is meantbyparticipation? To put it simply, participation means taking part.In the context of community development,

    the term means a willingness to take part, physically, mentally,psychologically, and spiritually in activities

    aimed at improving the social, economic, political,environmental and cultural life of the community in

    which one resides. It also involves taking part in thediscussions or showing concerns about anything which

    affects the well-being of the community in which one lives,Participation ultimately involves gettingconcerned about theproblems of one's environment (community) and taking the initiativeto have them


    In the community, grassroots participation involves a collectiveexpression of human dignity, exercising of

    human rights, where the people through a democratic process,determine the kind of, the direction, and the

    means to a better life. This could be spelled out in terms ofparticipatory approach to community


    Participation must not only be democratic but popular. Popularparticipation connotes an enlightened,

    responsible, active, and sustained involvement of the communityin the community development processfrom decision-making, problemidentification, planning, implementation, monitoring, andevaluation.

    In the context of Philippine researches, popular participationis defined as:

    Mass sharing of the benefit of development

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    Mass contribution to development; and

    Mass involvement in the planning, decision-making,implementation, monitoring and

    evaluation processes for development.

    In the community development process, emphasis is placed on thecommon or shared interests and

    concerns which turn up to become public issues, with origin asindividual interests and concerns.Participates originates from awidely shared discontent with existing conditions and this ischanneled into

    organization, planning and the directions of change. Theconsensus must be strong enough to initiate a

    program of action that meets with approval of a majority ofthose combined in the action.

    The initial reason for a people coming together is the beliefthat through organizations, action can be taken

    by or on behalf of groups. Organization therefore is the vehiclethrough which desired change can beaccomplished. Also, when thecommunity development process is effectively employed, therelationships

    between local units or subgroups in the community and individualproblems, certain value assumptions

    come into focus:

    The people of the community should actively participate incommunity change;

    Participation should be as inclusive as possible; and

    Participation should be through democratic organization

    Three necessary conditions for participation must be present ifthese value assumptions are to be realized:

    1. freedom to participate-autonomy;

    2. ability to participate; and

    3. willingness to participate.

    In the initial stages of a community program or project,normally fewer participants are involved. These

    participants discuss ideas and issues and make tentative plansfor community organization or group. The

    community leaders or those most concerned about the particularmatter under consideration are apt to

    participate at this point. The need here is for people who "know the community " well enough to identify

    others who ought to be involved. Persons with ideas and with theability to implement ideas contribute

    heavily during this initial stage.

    The task accomplishment stage usually calls for an expansion inparticipation. Community participation is

    at its highest during this period. More people are needed in theprogram of action than in either the initial

    stage or in the stage of continuity or discontinuity.Frequently, additional participants, in such roles asinterviewer,solicitor or manual, worker, are necessary to implement the programof action. In other

    instances, additional participation may be sought to helpsupport the outer comes of the action. In too much

    many cases increased participation is considered a goal initself. A broad base of participation is thought of

    a desirable, without considering why additional participants arebeing sought or how they will be involved,

    once they are brought into the organization.

    If the community project reaches its completion stage,participation usually will taper off as theorganization closes downand transfer any continuing aspect of the project to some ongoinggroup. In mostinstances, however, after the organization hasachieved its objective it does not dissolve but continues with

    new and different dimensions. People may lose interest and dropout. Leaders also may reign. New people

    become involved without knowledge of the history of theorganization and its earlier efforts. The nature

    and extent of individual participation changes over time and themembership changes over time as well.

    2. The Role of the Change Agent

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    Along with the citizen, the community change event is the majorparticipants in the process. The

    community change agent is known by several names. He or shesometimes called:

    Community development worker;

    The social animator

    The animator rural

    The consultant The community facilitator; etc.

    Among the names and others, the frequently used name is changeagent. The several names frequently used

    are meant to underlie the philosophical thrust of the communityworker's role.

    Looking at the purposes and objectives of community developmentactivities and of the processes utilized,

    reveal the complex and difficult applies in defining the termcommunity development worker or agent andhis/her roles (task). Itstands to reason that, it does not mean every person involved inthe process, for this

    would include the object of change--the resident of the area tobe developed regardless of the nature of his

    activity. On the other hand, to restrict the term to thetemporary resident who enters the life of the

    community as an agent of change would exclude those developmentworkers who are recruited from among

    the permanent Residents of the area.

    It may be best to define a community development worker (agent)as a person occupationally engaged in

    the activities associated with the discipline. As a furtherqualification, this occupational engagementconstitutes his majorfunction over a specified period of time. This definition excludesvolunteers and the

    ordinary citizens.

    Is he specialist or generalist?

    The most troublesome aspect of the subject is whether thecommunity development worker has some

    identifiable set of tasks or skills that distinguish him andseparate him from others specialists such

    physicians, agronomist, public health workers, the socialwelfare workers or teachers-- who all happen tobe working in adevelopment field. In addition, how are his skills differentiatedfrom those of the resident

    population? The answers can be questioned because communitydevelopment is relatively new and

    represents an emerging occupation. At the earlier times, thecommunity development worker was really a

    specialists possessing certain specific scientific skills, suchas an agronomists, or physician, or he might

    have been a more general publicists, organizer, or lobbyist whohappened to be working on behalf of the

    development area. His role at that time was that of a giver to areceiver. When the idea of developing a

    community, district, region or a nation became premised onsocial, economic, political, cultural, and

    psychological fronts, his situation become elaborated.

    At first, the agent has only his special knowledge and sympathyfor resources. Since transformation of anarea involves many aspectsof society, he may be a builder, economists, agronomists,physicians, social

    worker, nurse, teacher or other specialists. When the agent'sconfidence as an expert is tempered by an

    effective respect for the perceptions, wants, and desires ofpersons in the developing area, then he has

    begun the transformation from being an expert5 into developmentagent. To the expert's previously

    acquired technology or skill has been added new insight, newknowledge, and new skill for the effective

    engagement between himself and his beneficiary. If the task androle of the community development agent

    are viewed in this light, the addition of new insights to hisunderlying skill or technique becomes his centralconcern. Thenatural character of human association and of the socialorganization involves change,whether slow or rapid, whetherbackward or forward- moving into often uncertain and unpredictableforms.

    Social change also brings into its wake, profound psychologicaland cultural changes. The community

    development worker or agent is therefore, concerned withinducing change in society but at the same time

    tempering that change by the aspirations, wishes, and the pacingof the society and individuals involved.

    Most community development workers secure their employment fromhigher level organizations. The agent

    takes the values, visions and approaches from the sponsoringorganization. These may range from the

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    predominantly self-help stimulating approaches of certainchurch/religious organizations to the vast social

    and economic development efforts conducted through nationalorganizations to the vast social and

    economic development efforts conducted through national orinternational programs.

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