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The Republic Act 9163: An Overview of the
National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001
Part I. Looking Back: The Expanded Reserve Officers TrainingCorps (ROTC) Program
The Expanded Reserve Officers Training Corps ProgramExperience
The Expanded Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) Program wasmandated by the basic
constitutional provisions that the state shall promote andprotect the physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual
and social well-being of its citizenry. The Head Quarters of theArmed Forces of the Philippines directive
dated June 1994 established the Expanded ROTC Program.
The implementation of the Expanded Reserve Officers TrainingCorps (ROTC) Program started
during the School Year 1996-1997. On February 9, 1996, theCommission on Higher Education (CHED)
issued CHED Memorandum Order No. 10, Series of 1996 on theRevised Guidelines in the
Implementation of the Expanded ROTC Program. The offering of thethree components of the Expanded
ROTC Program namely, Military Training Service (MTS), LawEnforcement Service (LES) and Civic
Welfare Service (CWS) was declared mandatory for all HigherEducation Institutions (HEIs). The
Expanded ROTC Program enables the cadets who are in the lastyear of the basic military training tochoose from the threecomponents.
Article 3, Section 7 of RA 7077 stated that the mission of theCitizen Armed Force, alternately
referred to as the Reserve Force, is to provide the base for theexpansion of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines in the event of war, invasion or rebellion, toassist in relief and rescue during disasters or
calamities, to assist in socio-economic development and toassist in the operation and maintenance of
essential government or private utilities in the furtherance ofoverall mission.
Likewise, the Expanded ROTC Program was established to sustainthe ROTC Program as one of
the fertile sources of manpower for the AFP Reserve Force, toprovide the students enrolled in the initialbaccalaureate degreeprograms with options other than military training to satisfy therequirement for
graduation thereof and to provide a forum for the implementationof the National Service Law.
The three components of the Expanded ROTC Program:
1. Cadets who were enrolled in Military Service (MS) underwentbasic training on parade drills, military
courtesy and discipline and combat training.
2. Those who opted for Law Enforcement Service (LES) were giventraining on law enforcement services.
3. The Civic Welfare Service (CWS) option was consisted ofactivities designed to encourage the youth to
contribute in the improvement of the general welfare and thequality of life for the local community.
Emphasis here was given to health, education, safety,livelihood, and morale of the citizenry. Lectures
focused on loyalty, patriotism, nation building,civic-consciousness and other values.
Part II. A New Beginning and Beyond: The National ServiceTraining Program (NSTP) Act of 2001
The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001
The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001, RA9163, has been signed into law
by her Excellency, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on January23, 2002, in response to the public
clamor for reforms in the Reserved Officers Training Corps(ROTC) Program.
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Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
First Regular Session
Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-third dayof July, two thousand one.
[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9163]
AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE NATIONAL SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM (NSTP)FORTERTIARY LEVEL STUDENTS. AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC ACTNO. 7077 AND
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1706 AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of thePhilippines in Congress assembled:
SECTION 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as the NationalService Training Program (NSTP) Act
SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby affirmed theprime duty of the government to serve and
protect its citizens. In turn, it shall be the responsibility ofall citizens to defend the security of the State andin fulfillmentthereof, the government may require each citizen to renderpersonal, military or civil service.
Recognizing the youths vital role in nation building, the Stateshall promote civic consciousness among
the youth and shall develop their physical, moral, spiritual,intellectual and social well-being. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism, nationalism, and advancetheir involvement in public and civic affairs.
In pursuit of these goals, the youth, the most valuable resourceof the nation, shall be motivated, trained,
organized and mobilized in military training, literacy, civicwelfare and other similar endeavors in the
service of the nation.
SECTION 3. Definition of Terms. For purposes of this Act, thefollowing are hereby defined as follows:
(a) National Service Training Program (NSTP) is a program aimedat enhancing civic consciousness
and defense preparedness in the youth by developing the ethicsof service and patriotism while undergoing
training in any of its three (3) program components. Its variouscomponents are specially designed to
enhance the youths active contribution to the generalwelfare.
(b) Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) is a programinstitutionalized under Sections 38 and 39 of
Republic Act No. 7077 designed to provide military training intertiary level students in order to motivate,
training, organize and mobilize them for national defensepreparedness.
(c) Literacy Training Service is a program designed to trainstudents to become teacher literacy and
numeracy skills to school children, out of school youth, andother segments of society in need of their need
(d) Civic Welfare Training Service refers to programs oractivities contributory to the general welfareand the betterment oflife for the members of the community or the enhancement of itsfacilities, especially
those devoted to improving health, education, environment,entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and moralsof thecitizenry.
(e) Program Component shall refer to the service components ofthe NSTP as enumerated in section 4 of
SECTION 4. Establishment of the National Service TrainingProgram. There is hereby established a
National Service Training Program (NSTP), which shall form partof the curricula of all baccalaureate
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degree courses and of at least two (2) year technical vocationalcourses and is a requisite for graduation,
consisting of the following services components:
(1) The Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), which is herebymade optional and voluntary upon the
effectivity of this Act;
(2) The Literacy Training Service; and
(3) The Civic Welfare Training Service
The ROTC under the NSTP shall instill patriotism, moral,virtues, respect for rights of civilians, and
adherence to the Constitution, among others. Citizenshiptraining shall be given emphasis in all three (3)
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and TechnicalEducation and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA), in consultation with the Department ofNational Defense (DND), Philippine
Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC),Coordinating Council of Private Educational
Associations of the Philippines (COCOPEA) and other concernedgovernment agencies, may design and
implement such other program components as may be necessary inconsonance with the provisions of this
SECTION 5. Coverage. Students, male and female, of anybaccalaureate degree course or at least two (2)
year technical vocational courses in public and privateeducational institutions shall be required tocomplete one (1) ofthe NSTP components as requisite for graduation.
SECTION 6. Duration and Equivalent Course Unit. Each of theaforementioned NSTP program
components shall be undertaken foe an academic period of two (2)semesters.
In lieu of the two (2) semester program for any of thecomponents of the NSTP, a one(1) summer
program may be designed, formulated and adopted by the DND,CHED, and TESDA.
SECTION 7. NSTP Offering in Higher and Technical-VocationalEducational Institutions. All higher and
technical-vocational institutions, public and private, mustoffer at least one of the program components.
Provided, that State universities and colleges shall offer theROTC component and at least one othercomponent as provided herein:Provided, further, that private higher and technical vocationaleducation
institutions may also offer the ROTC if they have at least threehundred and fifty (350) cadet students.
In offering the NSTP whether during the semestral or summerperiods, clustering of affected students from
different educational institutions may be done, taking intoaccount logistics, branch of service andgeographicalconsiderations. Schools that do not meet the required number ofstudents to maintain the
optional ROTC and any of the NSTP components shall allow theirstudents to cross-enroll to other schools
irrespective of whether or not the NSTP components in saidschools are being administered by the same or
another branch of service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines(AFP), CHED and TESDA to which
schools are identified.
SECTION 8. Fees and Incentives. Higher and Technical-vocationalinstitutions shall not collect any fee
for any of the NSTP components except basic tuition fees, whichshall not be more than fifty percent (50%)of what is currentlycharged by schools per unit.
In the case of the ROTC, the DND shall formulate and adopt aprogram of assistance and/or incentive tothose students who willtake the said component.
The school authorities concerned, CHED and TESDA shall ensurethat group insurance for health and
accident shall be provided for students enrolled in any of theNSTP components.
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SECTION 9. Scholarships. There is hereby created a SpecialScholarship Program for qualified students
taking the NSTP which shall be administered by the CHED andTESDA. Funds for this purpose shall be
included in the annual regular appropriations of the CHED andTESDA.
SECTION 10. Management of the NSTP Components. The schoolauthorities shall exercise academic andadministrative supervisionover the design, formulation, adoption and implementation of thedifferent
NSTP components in their respective schools. Provided, That incase a CHED or TESDA accreditednon-government organization (NGO)has been contracted to formulate and administer a training modulefor
any of the NSTP components, such academic and administrativesupervision shall be exercised jointly with
that accredited NGO. Provided, further, that such trainingmodule shall be accredited by the CHED and
The CHED and TESDA regional offices shall oversee and monitorthe implementation of the NSTP undertheir jurisdiction to determineif the trainings are being conducted in consonance with theobjectives of this
Act. Periodic reports shall be submitted to the CHED, TESDA andDND in this regard.
SECTION 11. Creation of the National Service Reserve Corps.There is hereby created a National Service
Reserve Corps, to be composed of the graduates of the non-ROTCcomponents. Members of this Corps
may be tapped by the State for literacy and civic welfareactivities through the joint effort of the DND,
CHED and TESDA.
Graduates of the ROTC shall form part of the Citizens ArmedForce, pursuant to Republic Act No. 7077.
SECTION 12.Implementing Rules. The DND, CHED and TESDA shallhave the joint responsibility for
the adoption of the implementing rules of this Act.
These three (3) agencies shall consult with other concernedgovernment agencies, the PASUC and
COCOPEA, NGOs and recognized student organizations in draftingthe implementing rules.
The implementing rules shall include the guidelines for theadoption of the appropriate curriculum for each
of the NSTP components as well as for the accreditation of thesame.
SECTON 13. Transitory Provision. Students who have yet tocomplete the Basic ROTC, except those
falling under section 14 of this Act, may either continue in theprogram component they are currently
enrolled or shift to any of the other program components oftheir choice: Provided, that in case he shifts toanother-programcomponent, the Basic ROTC courses he has completed shall be countedfor the purpose of
completing the NSTP requirement: Provided, further, that once hehas shifted to another program
component, he shall complete the NSTP in that component.
SECTION 14. Suspension of ROTC Requirement. The completion ofROTC training as a requisite forgraduation is hereby set aside forthose students who despite completing all their academic units asof the
effectivity of this Act have not been allowed to graduate.
SECTION 15. Separability Clause. If any section or provision ofthis Act shall be declared
unconstitutional or invalid, the other sections or provisionsnot affected thereby shall remain in full force
SECTION 16. Amendatory Clause. Section 35 of Commonwealth ActNo.1, Executive Order No. 207 of1939, sections 2 and 3 ofPresidential Decree No.1706, and sections 38 and 39 of Republic ActNo. 7077,
as well as all laws, decrees, orders, rules and regulations andother issuances inconsistent with theprovisions of this Act arehereby deemed amended and modified accordingly.
SECTION 17. Effectivity. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15)days after its publication in two (2)
newspapers of national circulation, but the implementation ofthis Act shall commence in the school year of
The National Service Reserve Corps (NSRC)
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Section 11 of RA 9163 of the National Service Training ProgramAct of 2001, specifically
provides for the creation of a National Service reserve Corps(NSRC), composed of graduates of the non-
ROTC components: the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) andLiteracy Training Service (LTS).
Members of this Corps maybe tapped by the State of literacy andcivic welfare activities, through the jointefforts of DND, CHED andTESDA.
To provide a trained and motivated manpower pool that can betapped by the State for civic welfare,
literacy and other similar endeavors in the service of thenation.
a. To assist in the disaster preparedness, mitigation, responseand rehabilitation programs;
b. To serve as an auxiliary to the Disaster Coordinating Council(DCC) response units;
c. To assist in the promotion of civic welfare activities;
d. To assist in the implementation of literacy programs;
e. To assist in socio-economic development;
f. To assist in environmental protection; and
g. To perform other similar endeavors.
The NSRC shall be composed of the graduates of the Civil WelfareTraining Service (CWTS) and LiteracyTraining Service (LTS)components of the NSTP.
The NSRC is organized under the umbrella of the NationalDisaster Coordinating Council (NDCC). It shall
have a national, regional, provincial and city/ municipal levelof organization parallel to the Disaster
Coordinating Council (DCC) structures at all levels. The DCCcenters shall serve as the headquarters of the
NSRC at respective level of organization. Its National Centershall be based at the NDCC DisasterPreparedness Center, CampGeneral Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City. A secretariat at all levelsshall be
organized and composed of representatives from CHED andTESDA.
5. Inter-Agency Relationship of the NSRC Concerned Agencies
RDCC Regional Disaster Coordinating CouncilPDCC ProvincialDisaster Coordinating Council
CDCC City Disaster Coordinating CouncilMDCC Municipal DisasterCoordinating Council
BDCC Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council
CHEDRO CHED Regional Office
TESDA RO TESDA Regional Office
TESDA PO TESDA Provincial Office
HEI Higher Educational Institution
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2. Regional Offices:
(a) Prepare consolidated Regional list of CWTS and LTS graduatesfrom HEIs and in the case of
TESDA from the Provincial Office to the schools, for submissionto CHED/TESDA Central
(b) Coordinate with RDCC (OCD RCs) on matters relative to NSRCconcerns;
(c) Maintain a Directory of CWTS and LTS graduates forreference;
(d) Prepare reports as maybe required; and
(e) Do related work.
3. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), TESDA ProvincialOffices and Schools:
(a) Prepare and submit a certified masterlist with completeaddresses and contact numbers, of
CWTS and LTS graduates to respective Regional Offices. In thecase of TESDA, the same shall
be submitted through its Provincial Offices;
(b) Provide information on CWTS and LTS graduates as may beofficially requested by authorizedconcerned agencies;
(c) Coordinate with PDCC/CDCC/MDCC/BDCC, as the case may be, onmatters relative to
(d) Do related work.
4. NSRC Members:
(a) Report to the call of NSRC for training and respondimmediately for utilization incase ofdisasters/calamities and otherrelevant socio-economic service concerns as the needs arise,through
its Centers (RDCC/PDCC/CDCC/MDCC/BDCC) nearest the membersresidence and/or
workplace at the time of the call; and
(b) Register at the said Center and get instructions/briefingfor specific duties and responsibilities.
The Civic Welfare Training Service Program (CWTSP) Component ofNSTP:
An Option of Colegio de San Juan de Letran
A. Life of St. Dominic de Guzman: Founder of the Order ofPreachers
St. Dominic de Guzman was born in Calaruega, Spain in 1170 froman illustrious family of Don Felix de
Guzman and Doa Joana de Aza. He began his studies for thepriesthood at the University of Palencia.
During an outbreak of famine, he sold his precious books andgave the money he earned to the poor.
He was ordained priest in 1195 and performed his priestly dutiesas Canon in Osma, Soria, Spain. In 1206,
he decided to stay in Narbonne and undertook the mission of theConversion of the Albigenses. He
founded the community of nuns at Prouille which he made as hisbase of operations. He established the
new community at Toulouse which is considered as the cradle ofthe Dominican Order.
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In 1216, Pope Honorious III confirmed the Order of Preachers(O.P.) after which St. Dominic dispersed
the brethren to the Theological centers of Christendom. He diedin 1221 at Bologna on the feast of St.
Sixtus. He was elevated to the altar by Pope Gregory IX in1234.
B. Life of San Vicente Liem dela Paz: The Colegios ForemostAlumnus
Vicente arrived in Manila from Tongkin (Vietnam) on May 21,1947. He was 16 years of age. He enrolledon the same day as one ofthe six scholars from Vietnam under the Patronato of the King ofSpain. He was
an intern student.
From the time of his arrival to the opening of school year1747-1748, Vicente studied the intricacies of the
Spanish language. Once classes opened, he joined the cursoinfimo whose students were known as
escolapios. Vicente was so bright and diligent that in threeyears he learned Latin and spoke Spanish to
perfection and passed with high marks all the subjects of theLatinidad and Philosophy courses.
After graduation, he continued in Letran, but this time it wasto help the students with their
lessons. He was enrolled in the University of Santo Thomas forthe higher Philosophy and Theology
courses. He completed these superior courses in another threeyears. And then left Letran for Santo
Domingo convent to enter the religious life and prepare himselffor the priesthood.Vicente was missed very much when he leftLetran. He was so good and understanding to his
companions, most condescending in games, very punctual in hisobligations and above all, very diligent in
his studies. He became a model to others. He tutored the slowlearners and acted as an assistant to the
superior after the decano. This position was reserved to thebrightest student but there was a ruling thatonly Spaniards orFilipinos could be appointed. Vicente took this ruling in strideand in no manner
changed his humble disposition and attitudes.
He then joined the Dominican Order and on September 9, 1754 andmade his religious profession. After
four years, he was ordained to the priesthood and in 1758 leftfor Tongkin (Vietnam), his homeland.
When Vicente left the Philippines and returned to his nativecountry, Christianity was being cruelly
persecuted. For fifteen years he worked among his countrymen,preaching the Gospel and bringing
comfort to the oppressed Christians.
On September 9, 1954, he received the Dominican habit at theSanto Domingo Convent. After 4 years, he
went back to Tonking, where Chistians were being cruellypersecuted. There, he spent days and nights giving spiritualdirection and administering the sacraments. Someone revealed hisactivities to the
authorities and he was immediately arrested together with Fr.Jacinto Castaneda, a Spanish-Dominican.
They were put into a cage like animals. The King was disposed tobe lenient for he was not a foreigner but
Vicente pleaded that there should be one judgment for priests,whether foreign or native. They accused him
of treason and the King pronounced the death sentence.
Vicente was tied to the stakes and beheaded on November 7, 1773.Before he died, Vicente gave thanks to
God for the victory that had recently been granted to him.
A short time later, the news of the martyrdom of Vicente reachedLetran. There was sadness and joy.
Sadness because a son had been killed; joy because he died theglorious death of a martyr of the faith.
It appears that Vicente wanted to continue making his presencefelt in Letran. Immediately after his
marytrdom, the Christians kept some parts of his body forrelics. One of the major relics - a humeral bone
- was sent to Letran. This relic has been the center ofveneration throughout all these years, specially
during college day celebrations when the students and alumnihonor him as their foremost alumnus andheavenly patron.
When Saint Pope Pius X beatified him in 1906, the Letrancommunity put up a marble monument in one of
the quadrangles of the college. This monument was destroyedduring the war. In 1953, another statue was
put up. It stands as a beacon for students and alumni toemulate.
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Would Saint Dominic and San Vicente be relevant in our day andage?
The reply is a categorical: YES!
- they would still be the friars who spoke only to God or aboutGod,
- they would continue to cry out during their vigils: Lord, whatwill become of sinners?
-they would be sensitive to and filled with compassion for theafflicted, the poor and the down-trodden;
- they would live in accordance with the teaching of Vatican IIwhich states that religious give
witness to their poverty by working for their living;
- they would use modern means for communication andtransportation in their preaching
- they would preach against all forms of injustice and insist onrestitution as they did to usurers
of their time.
- they would urge those who have to make sacrifices to helpthose who have not;
- they would respect the competence of women to work in and forthe Church;
- they would show confidence in the ability of their fellowmen;
- they would visit and endeavor to help those in prison;
- they would proclaim their trust in the youth of this age.
History of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The Colegio de San Juan de Letran emerged from the fusion of twosimilar institutions both located in
The first was founded in 1620 by Don Geronimo Guerrero, aretired Spanish Officer, who transformed his
hermitage home into an orphanage called the Colegio de NinosHuerfanos de San Juan de Letran. Itspurpose was to educate and tomold orphans into good Christian citizens.
At about the same time, another institution by the name ofColegio de Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo
was established by the Dominican brother Diego de Santa Maria atthe Convent of Sto. Domingo.
The founders of these two institutions with identical origin andpurpose did not only share a commonconcern for the children ofIntramuros but they were also linked by the strong bond offriendship. It was
not surprising therefore that their two institutions were mergedinto one even in their lifetime in 1630 and
became known simply as the Colegio de San Juan de Letran.
The name San Juan de Letran was inspired from the major Basilicaof Saint John Lateran in Rome, mother
of all Christian churches. Early in the history of the College,its chapel was granted many of the privileges
enjoyed by the major Basilica. St. John the Baptist for whom theBasilica is named, is also the patron saint
of the College.
In 1690, Letran was declared an ecclesiastical college. In 1738,six scholarships were granted by the King
of Spain for Chinese, Japanese, and Tongkinese (Vietnamese)students. Saint Vicente Liem de la Paz was
among the students who enjoyed this scholarship.
A royal decree of May 1865 pronounced Letran as a College of thefirst class. The school's curriculum was
reviewed and revised according to European and American patternsin 1886. Further expansion took
place in 1894 and adjustments were made with the arrival of theAmericans in 1900.
In 1937, a three-storey building replaced the old structure. Thegrowth of the College was temporarily
arrested when the building was bombed in 1941 and then turnedinto a garrison by the Japanese army in
1994. The College was temporarily housed in the Dominican churchand convent of San Juan del Monte.After the war in 1946, Letranreturned to its home in Intramuros.
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Education is self-initiated and self- motivated process. Itoccurs in the learner and ends in the learner. The
teacher is but a facilitator of learning.
Education is about learning to learn, to live, to love, and toleave a legacy.
The Heritage of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Letran started from a very humble beginning as an orphanagecatering to the orphans of
Intramuros. Its purpose was to educate and mold the children ofIntramuros to become good Christian
citizens.After 400 years of existence, Letran has formed pioussaints and martyrs. Letran's most illustrious
alumnus is St. Vicente Liem dela Paz, O.P. Other Alumni who weremartyred for their faith as they
propagated the teachings of Christ in Japan were Bld. VicenteShiwosuka dela Cruz, O.P., Bld. Jacobo
Kyushu Tomanaga, O.P., Bld. Pedro de Sta. Maria, O.P., Bld.Tomas de San Jacinto and Bld. Francisco
Shoyemon de San Jose.
Most heroes and leaders of our country, who have guided ourpeople in converting the country's
agony into glory, have been cradled from the bosom of theColegio. From the ranks of heroes and patriots
came Antonio Regidor, Apolinario Mabini, Emilio Jacinto, FelipeAgoncillo, Fr. Jacinto Zamora, Fr. Jose
Burgos, Gen. Manuel Tinio, Gen. Artemio Ricarte, Gen. Gregoriodel Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, thePardo de Taveras and a host ofothers. From the servants of the Filipino people came EmilioAguinaldo,Manuel Quezon, Sergio Osmena, Sr., Jose Laurel andnumerous Letranites in public service.
Deus . . . Patria . . . Letran. In propagating and living thefaith, in the struggle for honor, valor and
glory of the nation, Letran losts her sons. But from the painfulgrief she rose victorious, radiant and
jubilant. Through the centuries, her magnificense will shine inhow she molded her children. She will be
perpetuated on how her children have influenced the lives ofother people. Her legacy to her children . . .
the power to uplift himself and humanity in mind, body andspirit!
The Mission-Vision of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The goal of education is the total integral formation of thehuman person that would lead him to
attain the purpose for which he was created, union with God,community with others and harmony with
creation. Letran, characterized by the formation of the youth,is guided by her Vision-Mission:
We, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, a Dominican institutionof learning, commit ourselves to
the quality formation of integral human persons in our nobletradition of excellence and the supreme ideal
of Deus, Patria, Letran. Specifically, we endeavor to form theLetran Community to become:
- staunch defenders of the Church;
- faithful devotees of Mary;
- ardent lovers of Truth;
- dynamic builders and leaders of communities; and
- development of self-reliant communities.
By 2020, we envision a Christ-inspired, nationally-responsiveand globally competitive Colegio de San
Juan de Letran at the threshold of being a University, evidencedby quality academic standard, strongresearch culture and sustainedcommunity service. Specifically, we see Letran as a leading centeron the:
- creative use and applicant of information and communicationstechnology in education;
- values-oriented communication and media education;
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- historical studies and research, particularly on Intramuros;and
- development of self-reliant communities.
Institutional Core Values of the Colegio de San Juan deLetran
We, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran remains resolute in ourinstitutional core values. Theseprovide us intense focus anddistinct direction:
1. Spiritualism (Love for God)
Our strong faith in God and filial devotion to the BlessedVirgin Mary give us an unbreakable bond that
unifies us. We are vigorous in adhering to truth. We recognizethe principles and tenets of the Catholic
Church to be the basis of our integrity, ethics andmorality.
2. Patriotism (Love for Country)
We are committed in assisting the nation by sharing ourresources and capabilities. The passion to serve
the less privileged sectors of the society overflows in ourspirit. Social awareness and responsibility always
exist in the mainstream of our thoughts. We understand theimportance of fellowship and charity among
individuals and thereby promote cooperation and harmony toward aprogressive community.
3. Letranism (Love for Alma Mater)
We cherish the many years spent in Colegio de San Juan deLetran, home for our mind and body, and
where human values were imbibed and skills honed all to prepareus for a meaningful and noble
Christian life. In deep gratitude, we pledge our loyalty to theColegio. We are proud of her history and
legacies. We continuously strive for excellence in our pursuitof knowledge and wisdom and commit tospread her ideals and values.In all our endeavors, we conduct ourselves with grace and nobility.We
venture to conquer new glories for her honor and promise toalways remember our dear Alma Mater,
Part II. The Civic Welfare Training Service Program of theColegio de San Juan de Letran
The Civic Welfare Training Service Program as an Option of theColegio de San Juan de Letran
Letran, in opting the CWTSP, will facilitate the total integralformation of the human personthrough a program designed to preparethe youth, the students, for their bounden duties as citizens ofthe
country and children of the Holy Mother Church. Letranrecognizes that its students are valuable resources
and are instruments of cultural change and progress forindividuals as well as society. Letran's CWTSP
will provide the students knowledge and skills that they maycontribute to nation building. It will provide
the students the experience of community (pakikipagkapwa), forthis makes us Filipinos distinct from any
other race in the world. The students will become persons:
1. Who actively participate in the affairs of the Church and theState;
2. Who are respected leaders in society;
3. Who work for the betterment of the marginalized members ofthe community; and
4. Whose altruism is manifested in their active concern forothers.
In Letrn's CWTSP, the recognition of the youth's contribution tonation building is given dueimportance. Inspired by the youngLetranites who fought for the liberation of our nation, Aguinlado,Fr.
Burgos, Jacinto and others, Letran, through its CWSTP, willimpress in the minds of the students the value
of social responsibility. Through the CWTSP, students' awarenessto local and national issues will be
increased, and deepen their commitment and involvement to socialtransformation.
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1. Manuel Luis Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezon (1878-1944) was born on September 19, 1878 inBaler, Tayabas Province. He was
the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines(1935-1944). While a law student, he joined
(1899) Emilio Aguinaldos insurrectionary army and fought theU.S. forces until 1901. He was imprisoned
after the insurrection.
Admitted to the bar (1903), he was elected governor of TayabasProvince (1905), renamed Quezon in his
honor (1946). As a member of the first Philippine Assembly(1907-1909), he became floor leader of the
majority nationalist party.
He served as resident commissioner to the United States(1909-1916), crusading tirelessly for Philippine
independence and was instrumental in securing the passage of theJones Act (1916), which increased self-
government in the Philippines and gave the islands a pledge forfuture independence.
On his return to the Philippines, he was elected to the firstPhilippine Senate (1916) and was unanimouslychosen president of thebody - at the time the highest elective office in the land. Hecontinued his ardent
crusade for independence, strongly opposing the high-handedadministration of Governor-general
Leonard Wood (1921-1927), and after Woods death effecting theappointment of the more sympathetic
Henry Stimson. He helped bring about the passage of theTydings-McDuffie Bill, which established theCommonwealth of thePhilippines and promised complete independence in 1946.
Quezon was elected president of the New Commonwealth (1935). Aspresident, he initiated administrative
reforms, undertook many defense measures and greatly expandedhis power.
Re-elected in 1941, he escaped to the United States after theJapanese invasion of the Philippines in World
War II and conducted a government-in-exile there until his deathon August 1, 1944.
2. Apolinario Mabini
Called the Sublime Paralytic and the Brain of the Revolution,Apolinario Mabini was born on July
23, 1864 in Barrio Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas. Even at a youngage, he exhibited signs of intellectual
superiority. He finished law in spite of his poverty (1895).
Scholars also called him the Black Chamber of President EmilioAguinaldo for he penned most of the
latters decrees and order that are now part of our countrystradition of jurisprudence. Mabini wrote the
original statutes of the Katipunans Kartilya (Aguinaldostranslation of Mabinis work was composed for
the sake of the unlettered members of the Katipunan.
Mabini served in various capacities in the reformistorganizations like La Liga Filipina and Cuerpo de
Comprimisarios. During the period of the Philippine Republic, heserved as its President of the Council of
Secretaries as well as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Unwaveringin his stand against colonial occupationof the Philippines, he wascaptured and then exiled to the lonely outpost of Agana, Guam.Together with
Gen. Artemio Ricarte, he was among those who withstood allefforts to break their will against colonial
rule in the Philippines.
Returning to the Philippines (1902), he turned down all offersby the colonial authorities for him to
serve in their government. He returned to his humble abode inNagtahan, Sta. Ana, Manila. The
cholera epidemic that ravaged Manila (1903) led to his death onMay 13, 1903.
The Community We Belong: Understanding Community Needs
Part I. An Overview of the Present Condition of the Country
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An Overview of the Philippine Economy
The Philippine economy has been restructured and developedwithin the context of the global
free trade agenda of the superpowers in the colonial andpost-colonial periods. From the indigenous, self-
subsistent agriculture, agri-plantations were enforced by theSpanish crown to support the Galleon Trade
and supply the domestic food needs of the Spanish army andbureaucracy. This was sustained and
modernized by the American government through the entry ofAgricultural-Trans National Corporations(Agri-TNCs) and incollaboration with big native landowners. TNC exploitations ofagricultural resourcesexpanded to the forest and mineralsectors.
In the post-colonial period, the free-trade-oriented economicrestructuring continued mainly
through the installation of U.S. and free-trade-friendlyPhilippine governments which provide the policy
environment favorable to such agenda, e.g., Parity Rights,Bell-Trade Act, US-RP Treaty of General
In the onset of the 20 th century market crisis in the advancedeconomies characterized by
overproduction (goods and capital) against the backdrop ofgrowing labor and citizen militancy in these
economies due to the deterioration of living conditions, thetrans nationalization of production andinvestments have become moreaggressive to inferior economies like the Philippines. Incollaboration with
the government and Filipino elite (big landowners and business,TNCs and superpowers have been granted
the liberty to dump surplus products (including those that arebanned in their own countries); and put up
dirty and extractive industries and other labor-intensivesemi-processing industries with cheap and docilelabor offered bythe government as come-ons.
In the process of such historical restructuring of thePhilippine economy, the agrarian problem
(inequitable distribution of lands and allocation of productionresources), mass unemployment,
underdevelopment of the basic production sectors orunderdevelopment in general, take roots.As the country becomes moreand more dependent on foreign investments and international
financing, it becomes more subservient to the dictates andpolicy instigations of the superpowers and super-
economies. The nation and its people consistently lose sovereignpowers over the country, resources and
We take a look on the present condition of the country:
1. Employment Problems
Full time workers (working at least 40 hours/ week) decreasedfrom 17.0 million of April 2000 to 17.1million of April 2001. Thoseworking for less than 40 hours/ week increased from 9 million atlast year to
11.3 this year.All 14 regions posted a double-digit unemploymentrate with Metro Manila posting the highest at 17.7%
and Cagayan Valley the lowest at 10.3%.
The Department of Labor and Employment received notices ofclosure and retrenchment within the first six
months from 1, 314 manufacturing companies in Manila. This isexpected to cause the retrenchmentof 32, 576 workers.
The rate of employment generation cannot cope effectively withthe growth rate of the labor force. From
January to September 2001, 52,468 workers (roughly 199 workersper day) were displaced resulting from
closures and retrenchment.
2. Productivity and Income Problems
In the agricultural sector where the majority of theeconomically poor depends, the
farmers (landless, small-medium owner, cultivators in thelowlands, uplands and
indigenous areas), consistently experience decline inproductivity and income due to the
spiraling cost of production and technology against the backdropof market pricemanipulated by chains of traders who are alsoproviders of rural credit. The inferiority of
the marginal farmers production tools and technology and theirlack of access to land,
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credit, irrigation and post- harvest facilities make them lesscompetitive with the products
of corporate farms and those of the agricultural imports.
Fisherfolks also experience similar decline in productivity andincome as they lost their traditional fishing
grounds to commercial fishers whose production tools, technologyand capital are far superior. Over fishing
has consistently caused the decline in fish production,particularly in municipal waters. Municipal water
fish production rate posted a negative average of 2.9% annuallyfrom 1987-1994.
3. Natural Resources and Environment Problems
Environmental problems aggravate the productivity and incomedeficiency of the poor. The rapid depletion
of the countrys natural resources consistently constricts themarginal agricultural producers.
In 1575, total forest cover was 27.5 million hectares of about92% of the total land area with a rate of
deforestation of 22, 917 hectares per year. In 1995, forestcover stood at 5.6 million hectares or about
18.6% of the total land area with a deforestation rate of 120,000 hectares per year. The situation spells
calamities and disasters that impact adversely on the ecosystem,e.g., on lands and waters. In 1994, landsclassified as agriculturallands stood at 13 million hectares more than half of which weredevoted to rice
and corn. As consequence of deforestation, approximately 2.9million hectares have been eroded. The
countrys gross erosion rate stands at 2, 046 MMT/ year withgrassland and agricultural lands registering
the highest rates of 76% and 23% respectively.
4. Rising Cost of Living
Against the backdrop of spiraling cost of living, the povertysituation and difficulties of the poor worsen.
The series of oil price hikes in 2000 for instance, jacked upprices of other commodities. The hikes have
caused 10% price increase for every kilowatt-hour of electricityconsumption; 9% and 6% fare increases for
buses and jeepneys, respectively; 2% increase in the overallproduction cost of industries; .11% and 10%
increase in rice and corn household expenditures,respectively.
5. Inaccessible Basic Social Services
More and more poor families have been incapacitated to providethe socio-cultural needs of their householdmembers, especially thechildren, youth, aged and other social dependents. From schoolyears 1991-1992
to 1999-2000, the national average elementary enrollments stoodat 11.4 million. On the other hand,average high school enrollmentin the same period stood at 4.7 million. More and more children areunable
to pursue higher education.
The top notifiable diseases and causes of deaths would closelyassociate with poverty. From 1994-1996,
topping the list are reported cases of diarrhea, bronchitis,tuberculosis, pnuemonia, influenza and heart
disease with combined average of 630,000 cases annually. Thesame cases in the same period also topped
the list of death causes with a combined average of 19,342deaths annually. Availability and accessibility
of health services has been problematic on account that thetotal number of hospitals in the country stood at
1,794 (1999) or roughly 1 hospital for every 36,000 people. Thetotal number of government doctors was2,848 (1998) or roughly 1doctor for every 22,800 people.
Overview of the Philippine Politics
In the realm of politics that may be simplified as the socialrelations of peoples (e.g., governors-
governed, social leaders-constituents, dominant-subordinategroups, public-corporate-civil societies, etc.),
the problems have been identified as:
1. Graft and Corruption
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Graft and corruption have become institutions in government asthey have been practiced in practically all
levels of government including the countrys highest office. Theyhave so gross to infect and contaminate
even the institutions of learning that is supposed to mold andform values of the people especially the
youths for good and responsible citizenship; or the military andpolice agencies that are supposed to
discipline, reform or prevent persons in engaging in criminalacts and other anti-social practices. Graft &corruption havebecome too endemic that the government is losing its moralascendancy to lead its
constituents to the extent that it tends to deceive, bribe orcoerce the people to submit to its rule. As thisoccur in the socialrelationship between the governors and the governed, socialdisorder becomes a natural
cause of unpeace or the deterioration of just peace. Otherpolitical issues like nepotism, dynastism, and
vote-buying and election fraud could be correlated with theproblem on graft & corruption. Graft and
corruption is systematic in government. This situation isfurther maintained by the ineptitude of the justice
system (judicial branch) to prosecute and convict violators ofthe Anti-Corrupt Act and Practices Law.
The same is true with the rising organized crimes such asdrug-trafficking, kidnap-for-ransom, robbery,
extortion, bribery, etc. Law enforcement has been made inutilein curbing criminality due to the alleged
deep involvement of the some law enforcers, public officials andinfluential and affluent members of the
society. There is even strong reason to believe that electoralcampaigns of a number of government
officials are mainly supported by crime monies.
2. Political Marginalization
The political marginalization of the poor is a dominantphenomenon in the Philippine politics and
governance. The nature and composition of government ispredominantly elite in practically all branches
and levels. Though there has been a continuing trend of civilsocietys entry or collaboration within, it
could not yet meaningfully alter the elitist agenda of thegovernment. Though it allows democratic space
for the people to air their grievances and social appealsthrough consultations and legitimate street actions,
these could not yet effectively influence decisions and socialpolicy development.
On the side of the people (the unorganized and even portions ofthe organized), the level of politicalmaturity is low relative tocritical and informed participation in political affairs. Thoughthere are other
factors to consider relative to their political consciousnessand actions, they are crucial in the political
equation as they are vulnerable to manipulate in the politicalof the traditional and elite politicians.
The intensification of the economic and political crisis alsointensifies social conflicts based on the
competition in the allocation of wealth and power. Marginalfarmers, lowland and upland including
indigenous peoples complete with agro-corporations and TNCs inthe access and use of land and natural
resources. Marginal fisherfolk complete with big local andforeign fishing companies in the exploitation ofsea and marineresources. Urban poor communities battle against land developers,workers against
employers and even gangsters and crime syndicates against eachother.
The social crisis even intensifies the long-running antagonisticpolitical conflict between the government
and the armed challengers such as the MILF and the NDF.
The electoral system and the form of government have beendesigned to maintain elite politics. The
traditional system of election leaves very little space for thepoor to either participate in the electoral
contest or meaningfully choose candidates who would prove asreal champions and representatives of the
poor. At this juncture, the social action network needs toseriously evaluate whether the presidential formof government orother forms would be more responsive and facilitate toparticipatory politics and
The maintenance of elite politics and all its other negativecharacters is ensured by the support and
sponsorship of superpowers and super-economies that have greateconomic and political interest in the
country or in the region. The wide unorganized portion of thepopulation, particularly the poor and the
middle class, further ensured the maintenance of elite politics.With a low level of political consciousnessand maturity, they areless critical of graft and corruption in government or theanti-people social policy
decisions and are even easily vulnerable to manipulations oftraditional politicians and other elite groups.
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The social exclusion of the poor in the sharing of politicalpower resulted in their marginalization in the
distribution and allocation of economic resources, andvice-versa.
An Overview of the Philippine Culture
In the socio-cultural scene, the social crisis affects thecontinuing moral decadence and value
distortions. We can see these in the following socialmanifestations.
At one point, these could be seen as products and effects of thesocial crisis. Incidence of the anti-
social activities, immorality, and criminality rise as more andmore people lose their capacity to cope withthe crisis. At anotherpoint, the cultural crisis has become systematic reinforcing andintensifying the
economic and political crisis. The people, particularly theunorganized majority, tends to be more tolerant
and apathetic to the situation and indifferent to the strugglefor social change.
The law of the jungle the fittest survives has become thedominant social rule. It tends to build
on the capacity of people to complete than to cooperate tosurvive.
In finding the major reasons of the above social realities, wecan identify causes at the micro andmacro levels. Micro levelcauses would be social practices and social relations occurringwithin an
immediate environment that result either to positive or negativesituations or effects social facilities ordifficulties to themember of society or community.
Macro level causes on the other hand would be social policiesand traditions institutionalized at
the global environment by dominant social institutions thateither maintain or demolish the micro level
causes of the problematic social realities.
Pertaining to poverty as indicated unemployment, productivity& income problems of the poor in
both the rural and urban sectors and insufficient basic socialservices delivery in their communities.
1. At the micro level:
The marginalized sectors lack the appropriate education,knowledge, skills/technology to posses acompetitive edge in theemployment (salary/wages) market.
There is gross non-compliance to minimum wage law by companiesand violations of workers right to
security of tenure (due to labor contractualization practices)and right to unionize and collectively bargain
(due to no union, no strike policies, particularly in theEPZAs).
The more enterprising poor (own account workers/informal sectora substantial portion in what the
government considers employed) posses inferior capital andtechnology in a highly liberalized marketcompetition.
The marginalized farmers, fisherfolk and IPS do not have full ormeaningful access to and control of land,
capital, production and post-production technology andultimately trade and pricing. In many cases, their
productivity and income are adversely affected by aggressivedevelopment projects, e.g. urbanization, land
use conversion (circumventing the CARP), industrial orinfrastructure projects) that either dislocate them or
further deny them of the resource base. Moreover, theTHC-instigated crop conversion (through agro-plantations orcontract-growing and lately the introduction of bio-technology)further erodes the marginalproducers competitive edge in theeconomic cycle.
The productivity and income problems of the poor are aggravatedmore strategically (long-term sense) by
convention or chemical-based farming, destructive and abusivefishing practices, dirty and extractive
industries that destroy and deplete natural and productionresources.
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The rising cost of living (increasing prices of basiccommodities including social services) is caused by
price deregulation that allows price manipulation and budgetarycuts in the budget for social services.
2. At the macro level:
The intensifying economic crisis that impoverish the Filipinomajority can be attributed to the
underdevelopment of the countrys economic sectors particularlyagriculture and industry. Agriculturaldevelopment is hindered byagrarian problem where the direct producers do not have meaningfulaccess to
and control of lands, credit, technology and markets. This,against the backdrop of a rapidly growing rural
population, incapacitates the agricultural/rural economy toabsorb or provide jobs resulting in excessivelabor surplus.
The industrial sector, being underdeveloped, cannot provide jobsto the labor surplus. Those who migrated
to urban areas to look for jobs end up in slum areas doingmenial livelihood activities. The growth of the
urban poor population has been rapid that comprise the bulk ofthe informal sector. Most being unskilled
labor, they do not have the competitive edge in the employmentmarket. Some are lucky enough to be
absorbed in construction industries that provide them inseasonal employment. Even those with academic
qualification hardly find jobs and end up in the export labormarket. Those who cannot find overseasemployment are forced to takejobs for which they are overqualified.
Industries, unlike agriculture can provide jobs 24 hours a daycontinuously in any seasons. It is therefore a
crucial agenda in pursuing a strategic solution to theunemployment problem.
Pursued based on agrarian development, nationalindustrialization can increase domestic productivity as
well as strengthen the economys absorptive capacity to tap thegrowing labor force.
As the economy is not able to produce machines that producemachines, the industrial sector cannot engage
in value-added production of raw material agricultural outputs.Moreover, it cannot support themodernization needs of agriculture.Thus, agricultural products (crops, minerals, timber, sea andmarine
products) are exported to feed the raw materials needs ofoverseas industries. On the other hand, the
country imports for agricultural production, technology andcapital goods (machines) and even raw
materials to run the countrys semi-processing industries. Withthe countrys entry into the WTO-GATT
regime, even agricultural and consumer products have beenimported with the effect of further
marginalizing our local producers.
On one hand, the socio-political crises resulted to a culturalcrisis characterized by the distortion anderosion of positivesocial and moral values that used to bind Philippine society. Onthe other hand, values
created from such distortion and erosion tends to reinforcerather than become a counter-force to the social
The mainstream media and information technology (IT) which areowned by corporate proponents of
market-oriented globalization have been effective channels inpromoting values, lifestyles and consumption
patterns favorable to the market. Movies in particular, promotean escapist culture or hero-worship that
defies the positive value of unity and collective action ofpeoples to solve social problems.
The educational system, which is dominantly run by privateinvestors or financed by loans, has become
commercialized. Such would be evidenced by the continuingtuition increases every school year. Anotherwould be the choice ofenrollment that heavily weighs in favor of courses that are moretechnical and
closely associate with the needs of business corporations. Inschool year 1997-1998 for instance,
population for Business Administration, Mathematics and ComputerScience, Engineering, Medical and
allied courses were 620,681, 166,329, 299,226 and 164,784respectively. On the other hand, population of
courses which are crucially important to social and humandevelopment like Humanities, Social and
Behavioral Science, Natural Science and Agriculture, and relatedcourses were 9,394, 34,735, 21,914, and
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Gross graft and corruption in government; the creation andimplementation of social policies that make
more difficult the life of the poor; the practices ofcorporations that destroy the environment, dislocate or
disintegrate poor communities; or deny the basic rights ofworkers; the involvement of law enforcers in
organized crimes would be clear evidences of the worst valuedistortions happening in the countrys
cultural and moral landscape.
Influenced by distorted values against the backdrop of massivepoverty, the poor also develop the tendency
to engage and indulge in anti-social activities, e.g., drugabuse and trafficking, prostitution rings, gambling
syndicates and other organized crimes led by socially powerfuland influential personalities. Some othersengage in petty crimesand are usually the ones being caught and convicted swiftly. Drugtrafficking, in
particular, would no longer be considered for microanalysis asit had grown into a global trade.
There is close correlation between increasing crime incidenceand the worsening poverty situation. Crime
increases when employment opportunities become unavailable. Inthe U.S. for instance, crime and random
acts of violence is pervasive, but no amount of additionalprisons, no amount of executions of murderers
and no amount of extra police equipment has stopped crime unlessthe basic economic structure that breeds
poverty is positively changed. It is the same cause for Rwandancommercial sex workers to say it is betterto die of AIDS in tenyears than from hunger tomorrow
Extreme poverty beyond rationalization tends to reactivateprejudices and biases that have been kept in
peoples sub-consciousness during favorable times. This can be afactor in the increasing incidence of
ethnic and religious conflicts (as in Mindanao), resurgence ofracism in OCW or immigrant-receiving
countries or domestic violence against children and women.
Part II. Community Mapping
Definition of Community
There are a number of ways to think about what a community is.The first, most obvious way is to
think about it as a geographic area, a place with definedphysical boundaries. The most fundamental
characteristic of these geographic communities is that they areplaces of residence. People are familiar with
them because they live there.
Some communities are defined by individuals' shared interests,activities, affection, or common
identity. These characteristics differentiate them fromothers.
People are usually members of a geographic as well as interestcommunities. The notion of
geographic and interest or identificational can be seen in thedefinitions of the word community:
Community - a group of individuals or families that sharecertain values, service,
institutions, interests, or geographic proximity (Barker).
Community - or a "sense of community" exists when two or morepeople work together
toward the accomplishment of mutually desirable goals(Lofguist).
Community - is a territorially bounded social system or set ofinterlocking or integrated
functional subsystems (economic, political, religious, ethical,educational, legal, socializing,
reproductive, etc.) serving a resident population plans thematerial culture or physical plant
through which subsystems operate (Bernard).
Community is an identifiable human grouping that ispredominantly informal in
organization and interaction, heterogeneous in composition,enduring, and sharing some
characteristics or attributes in common (M. Fernando).
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7. To promote the national interests (population control).
8. To develop infrastructure for multinational corporationsinterests or colonial power interests
(introduction of the agricultural technological products of theMultinational Corporation, demolitions,
relocations, and construction of physical structures on thecommunity territory).
9. To preserve the ecological and genetic or biological heritageand indigenous technology andknowledge.
10. To implement the programs of UN and various civil groupsfrom outside.
11. To test or develop theories on community as well as toprovide information on consumer behavior in
the community or to determine the feasibility of economicenterprises (academic).
Our interest in community is to intervene in community towardits sustainable development and it
1. To help the community identify its actual needs distinct fromthe felt needs.
2. To improve its capabilities to solve its problems.
3. To improve the human resources and potentials as well asnatural resources toward the improvement of
conditions and quality of life in the community. This involvesthe localization of the benefits ofscience and technology andaffecting social integration, social organization, culturalproduction,
political participation of the people and the peoples controlover economic processes.
Community-building: A Community Development Challenge
An honest reflection on the many local and national issues thatexist today can be intimidating,even discouraging. The presentFilipino community is beset with problems such as low level ofliving, low
level of productivity, poor marketing system, oppressive andteneurial arrangements and practices,
unemployment and underemployment, limited genuine supportfacilities for socio-economic development,
poor health condition, low level of education, cultures ofsilence and poverty, personalized policies and
community disorganization. These factors exist, and they play apart in shaping our society. But just as
these limitations are facts of life, so too is our genuineconcern to those in need.
The ultimate goal of development is "to improve the quality oflife." To achieve this goal of
development, this requires an integrative process ofmobilization and the raising of the consciousness of the
people and the building of community organizations. Thedevelopment process to be truly responsive,
effective, equitable and sustainable, must be people-empowered,people-centered and towards community
empowerment. Such empowerment implies that the decision-makingmust be given to the people involved,
thereby incorporating into the development process their ownneeds and values (Dr. Vivian Gonzales, VIP-
CWS, Laguna: Sikap Strive Foundation, 1997).Through communitydevelopment, the students together with the people in thecommunity
develop a common feeling of solidarity and become aware thatthey can achieve positive changes not only
for themselves but also for their community.
Part I. Working Together through Community Development
A Brief History of Community Development
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Community development as a new discipline, grew out of an olderconcept community
organization. In the 1950s a number of social scientists andeducators formed the American Council on the
Community, a relatively short-lived organization whose purposewas the institutionalization of scattered
efforts throughout the United States to improve Americancommunity life. This effort was built on the
experience acquired during World War II when millions ofAmericans participated in volunteer efforts andorganized to dealwith local problems. This was the time when United Unions agenciesand the technical
assistance programs of the West sought to help the developingcountries (Third World countries) movealong the road to economicprogress (modernization). Community development became one of themodels
(strategies) employed toward the transformation. The termreceived so much attention and recognition not
only in the developing world but also in the US that it came toreplace community organization even in
the US. Programs to help the impoverished areas of Appalachia orlarge metropolitan centers were
legislated into existence and were labeled either as CommunityDevelopment or Rural Development in the
statutes. The essential feature was resource mobilization(people as well as material resources) at thecommunity level so asto introduce a better quality of life. It included, among others, anew kind of stock
taking by local residents, the use of outside consultants ininterpreting the facts collected and in planning
programs to meet the needs that were identified.
In the 1960s over sixty countries either had well-formulatednational community development
programs or were in the process of bringing them into existence.Leaders of nations in Africa, Central, and
South America, and Asia/Pacific after World War II facedtremendous tasks of nation building. This was
due to the long periods of colonization under European nationsfaced with large-scale problems andrelatively inadequateresource-utilization (low technical-know-how) national leadersembraced the idea of
mobilizing local people carry out community projects. TheCommunity Development program of India, forexample, was set up toaid the inhabitants of 558,000 villages attain a higher social andmaterial level of
well being. Multi-purpose village level workers, especiallytrained for this new challenge, met with the
village people, helped them to recognize and identify theirneeds and potentials and offered technical and
moral assistance to meet their needs. The technical assistancewas given by specialists in agriculture,
animal husbandry, road building, irrigation, education, healthand sanitation, rural cooperatives, etc. The
basic unit was the block which comprised 100 villages.
Other countries, of course, worked out the kind of communitydevelopment programs best fitted totheir situation. The key commonelement to all countries was the thrust toward self-help andcommunal
labor to undertake projects they considered important. Anycompensation of labor was often channeled
through the local community authorities by the external fundingagencies so that other projects could befurther financed (e.g. thefood-for-work programs).
These community development program were often fitted intonational five-year to ten year plans
to ensure the allocation of sufficient resources to theseefforts at the grass-roots level. To many national
leaders such programs seemed a way toward democratization anddecentralization of the political process;they gave local people afeeling of being involved in nation-building and showed that thecentral
government was actually beginning to show an interest in theirwelfare. In recent years, however, the
central government is found wanting in this direction becausethe interest in this approach begins to wane
due to greater focus being placed on urban development at theexpense of rural development.Definition of the Concept
There are many definitions of community development. Thedefinitions vary according to type of
agency, the setting, the method of operation and the purpose ofthe agency. Despite their differences, theyshare certaincommonalities in their definitions.
Thus, in defining the concept community development, theseelements are evident:
a group of people;
residing in a community;
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reaching a decision;
to initiate a social action process (planned intervention);
in order to have a desirable change in their social, economic,political, cultural, or
Community Development is a planned, organize and evolutionaryprocess whereby a group ofpeople with common aims, needs andaspirations come together to initiate social action in order toimprove
their social, economic, political, cultural, and environmentalconditions.
The term community development came into international usage toconnote the processes by
which the efforts of people themselves are united with those ofgovernmental authorities to improve the
economic, socialand cultural conditions of communities, tointegrate these communities into the life of the
nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to nationalprogress.
This complex of processes is made up of two essential elements:the participation of the people
themselves in efforts to improve their level of living with asmuch reliance as possible on their own
initiatives and the provision of technical and other services inways which encourage initiative, self-help,
and mutual help and make them more effective in programsdesigned to achieve a wide variety of specific
improvements such as health, environmental conservation etc.This definition was coined by the UnitedNations.
The Aims and Objectives of Community Development
Aim, is a term that is simply defined as a clearly directedpurpose. It is sometimes used
interchangeably to mean objective or goal.
In the context of Community Development, the words aim andobjectives are not easy to
defined. However the aim of community development is refer to acommunity action. This does not help
much to understand without referring to the reality of communitydevelopment practice.
In reality the primary objective of community development is topromote, sustain, support and
maintain community action.
Apparently, community development is related to communityaction, just as education, is related
to learning. Hence, in promoting community development thesemust be some kind of community action to
initiate or to guide the promoter to carry out either social oreconomic activities to improve their welfare or
to solve their real problems.
In order to arrive at a simpler understanding of the aims andobjectives of community
development, it may be worthwhile looking into the differenttypes of community development and their
respective objectives. Looking at each of them will underlineboth their differences and similarities. From
this standpoint, it may be possible to infer a general aim ofcommunity development through the synthesis
of their common element.
1. Community Work Type
This can be regarded as a professional approach to communitydevelopment which has developed within
the field of social work. It came into being in response toincreasing demand for social services for the age,
the sick, the unemployed etc.
The objective of this type of community development work ahsbeen given as the, giving of aid and
support to people who need more control over their lives.
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This is known the kampong-based type. The aim is towards thedevelopment of the potential of
individual members of the target group. It stresses onself-reliance and participation to bring about
desirable socioeconomic transformations. It also stresses oncultural exchange between Kampong in other
countries to stimulate globalization.
The Major Purposes of Community Development
The overall purpose of community development is to help peopleemploy the rights methods toorganize self-help initiatives and todevelop techniques relevant to their own situation forsocio-economic
and cultural progress.
Specifically, community development:
1. Is designed to meet the learning needs of significant groupsin the community e.g. community leaders or
civic or special interest organizations.
2. Enhance the ability of groups of individuals so that they canwork collectively to attain community
social and economic goals.
3. Teaches about matters relating to community or region,generally associated with social structures and
public as well as private and voluntary enterprises.
4. Emphasis on shaping infrastructure and social organizationalsupport through involvement in the
legislative, including formal financial and businessenterprises.
Basic Stages in the Community Development Process
A process is something which has a beginning and an end, and ithappens over time. In the
community development process, certain distinct stages areessential for its promotion. There are various
listings of stages or steps in literature on communitydevelopment. But I shall somehow oversimplify ithere.
1. The Problem Situation
A situation may exist in a community which represents a need, aproblem, an opportunity, or a challenge toa community group, or tothe entire community. Usually it would be tackled as a communityproject.
1. The Will To Do
Through discussion, diffusion of ideas and with informationinput, the group involved may reach a point
where it is beginning to form a will to do something aboutit.
Some form of organization is established with a certain amountof commitment from individuals to some
in-depth and specific thinking about the project.
3. Getting to the People
At this stage, the process moves to the general membership ofthe community. Information is diffused and
educational work is undertaken community-wide. The potentialexists for conflict. Considerable discussion,
and expression of viewpoints. General goals may become clear andsome commitments may be made.
4. The Planning Process
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If the project is blessed by legitimizers, the planning processwill begin. The definition of objectives,
availability of options or alternatives, and availability ofresources may be assessed. The end result may be
a plan to approach the project with specific information.
5. Execution Phase
Initiation of the projects is often an occasion to buildcommunity spirit and identity and to cementcommitment depending onthe project, it is often an important occasion in thecommunity.
Evaluation is an on going process (monitoring) but the finalassessment is undertaken upon completion of
the project. Community members try to review their experiencefor strength and weaknesses. Theexperience gained may be used infuture community development projects.
The Role of the Citizen and Change Agent in the CommunityDevelopment Process
1. The Role of the Citizen
The participation by the people of the community in the processis of fundamental importance. The need
for understanding the root causes of our country'sunderdevelopment. Especially in the rural areas andcommittingourselves to its solution is imperative. Our concern for a ruralcommunity development affirms
our belief in the need for change.
However, some basic questions have to be raised:
a. What kind of participation?
b. Who are the participants?
c. How do they participate?
We all believe that people are the end and the means todevelopment, whether at the grassroots level or
national level. At the community or grassroots level,participation is of prime importance. What is meantbyparticipation? To put it simply, participation means taking part.In the context of community development,
the term means a willingness to take part, physically, mentally,psychologically, and spiritually in activities
aimed at improving the social, economic, political,environmental and cultural life of the community in
which one resides. It also involves taking part in thediscussions or showing concerns about anything which
affects the well-being of the community in which one lives,Participation ultimately involves gettingconcerned about theproblems of one's environment (community) and taking the initiativeto have them
In the community, grassroots participation involves a collectiveexpression of human dignity, exercising of
human rights, where the people through a democratic process,determine the kind of, the direction, and the
means to a better life. This could be spelled out in terms ofparticipatory approach to community
Participation must not only be democratic but popular. Popularparticipation connotes an enlightened,
responsible, active, and sustained involvement of the communityin the community development processfrom decision-making, problemidentification, planning, implementation, monitoring, andevaluation.
In the context of Philippine researches, popular participationis defined as:
Mass sharing of the benefit of development
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Mass contribution to development; and
Mass involvement in the planning, decision-making,implementation, monitoring and
evaluation processes for development.
In the community development process, emphasis is placed on thecommon or shared interests and
concerns which turn up to become public issues, with origin asindividual interests and concerns.Participates originates from awidely shared discontent with existing conditions and this ischanneled into
organization, planning and the directions of change. Theconsensus must be strong enough to initiate a
program of action that meets with approval of a majority ofthose combined in the action.
The initial reason for a people coming together is the beliefthat through organizations, action can be taken
by or on behalf of groups. Organization therefore is the vehiclethrough which desired change can beaccomplished. Also, when thecommunity development process is effectively employed, therelationships
between local units or subgroups in the community and individualproblems, certain value assumptions
come into focus:
The people of the community should actively participate incommunity change;
Participation should be as inclusive as possible; and
Participation should be through democratic organization
Three necessary conditions for participation must be present ifthese value assumptions are to be realized:
1. freedom to participate-autonomy;
2. ability to participate; and
3. willingness to participate.
In the initial stages of a community program or project,normally fewer participants are involved. These
participants discuss ideas and issues and make tentative plansfor community organization or group. The
community leaders or those most concerned about the particularmatter under consideration are apt to
participate at this point. The need here is for people who "know the community " well enough to identify
others who ought to be involved. Persons with ideas and with theability to implement ideas contribute
heavily during this initial stage.
The task accomplishment stage usually calls for an expansion inparticipation. Community participation is
at its highest during this period. More people are needed in theprogram of action than in either the initial
stage or in the stage of continuity or discontinuity.Frequently, additional participants, in such roles asinterviewer,solicitor or manual, worker, are necessary to implement the programof action. In other
instances, additional participation may be sought to helpsupport the outer comes of the action. In too much
many cases increased participation is considered a goal initself. A broad base of participation is thought of
a desirable, without considering why additional participants arebeing sought or how they will be involved,
once they are brought into the organization.
If the community project reaches its completion stage,participation usually will taper off as theorganization closes downand transfer any continuing aspect of the project to some ongoinggroup. In mostinstances, however, after the organization hasachieved its objective it does not dissolve but continues with
new and different dimensions. People may lose interest and dropout. Leaders also may reign. New people
become involved without knowledge of the history of theorganization and its earlier efforts. The nature
and extent of individual participation changes over time and themembership changes over time as well.
2. The Role of the Change Agent
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Along with the citizen, the community change event is the majorparticipants in the process. The
community change agent is known by several names. He or shesometimes called:
Community development worker;
The social animator
The animator rural
The consultant The community facilitator; etc.
Among the names and others, the frequently used name is changeagent. The several names frequently used
are meant to underlie the philosophical thrust of the communityworker's role.
Looking at the purposes and objectives of community developmentactivities and of the processes utilized,
reveal the complex and difficult applies in defining the termcommunity development worker or agent andhis/her roles (task). Itstands to reason that, it does not mean every person involved inthe process, for this
would include the object of change--the resident of the area tobe developed regardless of the nature of his
activity. On the other hand, to restrict the term to thetemporary resident who enters the life of the
community as an agent of change would exclude those developmentworkers who are recruited from among
the permanent Residents of the area.
It may be best to define a community development worker (agent)as a person occupationally engaged in
the activities associated with the discipline. As a furtherqualification, this occupational engagementconstitutes his majorfunction over a specified period of time. This definition excludesvolunteers and the
Is he specialist or generalist?
The most troublesome aspect of the subject is whether thecommunity development worker has some
identifiable set of tasks or skills that distinguish him andseparate him from others specialists such
physicians, agronomist, public health workers, the socialwelfare workers or teachers-- who all happen tobe working in adevelopment field. In addition, how are his skills differentiatedfrom those of the resident
population? The answers can be questioned because communitydevelopment is relatively new and
represents an emerging occupation. At the earlier times, thecommunity development worker was really a
specialists possessing certain specific scientific skills, suchas an agronomists, or physician, or he might
have been a more general publicists, organizer, or lobbyist whohappened to be working on behalf of the
development area. His role at that time was that of a giver to areceiver. When the idea of developing a
community, district, region or a nation became premised onsocial, economic, political, cultural, and
psychological fronts, his situation become elaborated.
At first, the agent has only his special knowledge and sympathyfor resources. Since transformation of anarea involves many aspectsof society, he may be a builder, economists, agronomists,physicians, social
worker, nurse, teacher or other specialists. When the agent'sconfidence as an expert is tempered by an
effective respect for the perceptions, wants, and desires ofpersons in the developing area, then he has
begun the transformation from being an expert5 into developmentagent. To the expert's previously
acquired technology or skill has been added new insight, newknowledge, and new skill for the effective
engagement between himself and his beneficiary. If the task androle of the community development agent
are viewed in this light, the addition of new insights to hisunderlying skill or technique becomes his centralconcern. Thenatural character of human association and of the socialorganization involves change,whether slow or rapid, whetherbackward or forward- moving into often uncertain and unpredictableforms.
Social change also brings into its wake, profound psychologicaland cultural changes. The community
development worker or agent is therefore, concerned withinducing change in society but at the same time
tempering that change by the aspirations, wishes, and the pacingof the society and individuals involved.
Most community development workers secure their employment fromhigher level organizations. The agent
takes the values, visions and approaches from the sponsoringorganization. These may range from the
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predominantly self-help stimulating approaches of certainchurch/religious organizations to the vast social
and economic development efforts conducted through nationalorganizations to the vast social and
economic development efforts conducted through national orinternational programs.
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