Behind Barcodes: How They Work (2023)

Barcodes are everywhere. They’re in your kitchen cabinets, on your bathroom counter and stacked on your bookshelf. Barcodes have become so omnipresent that they often go unnoticed, and consumers are so familiar with them that they know how to scan them to check themselves out at the grocery store.

Since their invention 70-plus years ago, barcodes have turned into an essential tool for businesses to make their inventory control and sales operations more efficient and track products as they move through the supply chain. This technology has proven critical to the success of many businesses—yet few companies think about whether they’re maximizing the humble barcode.

What Is a Barcode?

At a basic level, a barcode is a square or rectangle with a combination of vertical black lines of varying thickness and height, white space and numbers that together identify specific products and their relevant information. Computers linked to scanners can read these codes and use the exact combination of bars, spaces and numbers to retrieve the data for that product.

Today, barcodes are found on not only household items that come from supermarkets or retail stores, but licenses, rental cars, checked luggage and hospital bands. In each case, they identify a product or person and encode important details.

Key Takeaways

  • Barcodes encode product information into bars and alphanumeric characters, making it much faster and easier to ring up items at a store or track inventory in a warehouse.
  • Besides ease and speed, bar codes’ major business benefits include accuracy, inventory control and cost savings.
  • There are many types of barcodes, but they all fall into two categories: linear codes, including widely used formats like UPC and EAN, and matrix codes, like QR codes.
  • Barcoding has a low barrier to entry—all a business needs is a printer, scanner and basic inventory management software.

Barcodes Explained

Barcodes save time and money because they can be read by a scanner, either a handheld device or one built into a checkout station, instead of an employee having to manually key in product information.

There are two primary types of barcodes: one-dimensional (1D), like those found on food packaging or a shampoo bottle, and two-dimensional (2D), like a QR code on an advertisement that directs the user to that company’s website. Most scanners can only read 1D, or linear, barcodes, and they remain the most popular format; more on 1D vs. 2D codes later.

Two of the most common types of linear barcodes are the Universal Product Code (UPC) in the U.S. and the European Article Number (EAN) in Europe.

How Barcodes Work

The width of the black bars usually represents the numbers 0 or 1, while the sequence of those bars signifies a number between 0 and 9. A computer connected to the scanner has all the information on what item is associated with that unique combination of bars and spaces and may add, multiply or divide those numbers to identify the correct product, which shows up on the screen.

In a warehouse, the barcode might encode an item’s size, color and other attributes, as well as its location, so the company has a detailed view of current inventory and can quickly fulfill orders or conduct physical inventory counts. In a retail setting, this information could include the product name and price that an associate needs to check out a customer. Organizations can use barcodes to track goods throughout their life cycle, from manufacture to distribution to purchase to service and repair.

Barcode Components

Barcodes must be designed in a precise, uniform way so a scanner can read them and transmit the encoded data to a computer. Using various components, a barcode may also reveal the country of origin, product category and manufacturer.

The diagram below shows the different elements of a UPC barcode, followed by an explanation of each component

(Video) Barcodes: A History of Barcodes and How They Work

  • Quiet zone: The empty, white space on the edges of a barcode is the “quiet zone,” and is necessary for the scanner to read the label.
  • Number system digit: The first digit represents the product category on UPC codes. For example, retail products often start with 0 or 1, pharmaceuticals with 3 and coupons with 5.
  • Manufacturer code: The first group of characters after that initial number usually identify the manufacturer. GS1, a global standards organization that regulates UPCs, assigns each manufacturer a unique code.
  • Product code: The next set of characters identify the specific product and are created by the manufacturer.
  • Check digit: The check digit confirms the accuracy of the data tied to that barcode and flags any potential errors.

Business Benefits of Barcodes

Barcodes have taken off because they offer a clear and fast return on investment. Here are the key benefits businesses can take advantage of with barcodes:

  • Accuracy:

    Barcodes eliminate manual entry of product information at receiving, meaning there are far fewer opportunities for error. Whether in a retail store or a warehouse, associates simply swipe the barcode across the scanner. Errors in barcodes themselves are extremely rare.

  • Real-time data:

    Each time an employee scans a barcode, it immediately updates inventory and sales numbers in the company’s enterprise resource planning (ERP) or business management system. This gives a business constant access to up-to-date data, allowing it to quickly calculate meaningful metrics ike inventory turn, value of inventory on-hand or sales per week by item.

  • Reduced training:

    For the most part, barcodes and scanners are self-explanatory, so it doesn’t take new employees long to become efficient at the checkout counter. And, barcodes greatly reduce the need for memorization and institutional knowledge. At a grocery store, for example, the worker doesn’t have to know the codes for popular items to be productive.

  • Inventory control:

    Barcodes improve inventory management and reduce excessive spending on products. Employees can always find the most current information when reviewing inventory positions or trends in demand, which facilitates better decisions around purchasing and discounting. This cuts down on both inventory carrying costs and obsolete inventory, which boosts long-term profitability.

  • Low cost:

    Barcodes offer tremendous value, as the upfront investment is not large compared to systems that provide comparable benefits. Companies can create a limited number of barcodes for internal use for a low price, and as their needs grow, the cost of supporting technology remains reasonable.

Types of Barcodes

As noted earlier, there are two basic types of barcodes. Here are the basics on each and key differences:

  • Linear/1D

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (3)

    Linear, or 1D, barcodes are what most people visualize when they picture a barcode—black vertical bars with numbers below them. This is what most stores put on their products. Linear barcodes contain numbers, letters and symbols, which tie the code to a set of information in a database with details like product name, type, size and color. A 1D barcode must be linked to a database to function properly. Linear barcodes are often used on consumer goods, loyalty cards, shipping labels and books.

  • Matrix/2D

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (4)

    Matrix or 2D barcodes can store additional information, including quantity, images and website URLs. A 2D barcode can render this information without any connection to a database. Common uses of 2D barcodes are QR codes, which may direct users to a specific website or act as digital boarding passes. They have also become increasingly common in high-value manufacturing environments that require detailed tracking of parts and products, like medical equipment and pharmaceuticals.

Key differences

While 1D barcodes have only horizontal or vertical lines, 2D versions can have both, along with other shapes and patterns. This allows 2D barcodes to hold as many as 2,000 characters, compared with 80 characters with 1D codes. In addition, a wide variety of scanners can read linear barcodes, while 2D barcodes require more advanced scanners or smartphones. Finally, matrix barcodes can have smaller physical footprints than linear ones, so they’re often ideal for small items with minimal space for a barcode.

9 Common Product Codes

Companies developed a number of different types of barcodes as they became widely used over the last 50 years. Let’s walk through a few of the most common types of barcodes.

  1. UPC

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (5)

    (Video) How BARCODES Work

    As noted earlier, this is one of the most ubiquitous barcodes. Most U.S. consumer products, from food to office supplies to home improvement goods, use UPC codes. Standard UPC barcodes have 12 digits, and short versions have seven digits.

  2. EAN

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (6)

    EAN barcodes have much in common with UPC codes, with the key difference being they are widely used in Europe rather than America. They are also found on a wide variety of consumer goods. Standard EAN codes are 13 digits, while the shorter version has eight numbers.

  3. Code 39

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (7)

    Code 39 barcodes can include numbers, letters and symbols and are primarily used by the U.S. Department of Defense and in certain manufacturing sectors, like automotive production.

  4. Code 128

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (8)

    This is a more advanced version of Code 39, and got its name because Code 128 can include any of the 128 characters in ASCII. The ability to choose from a larger number of characters expands the amount and type of data that can be encoded. Code 128 is often used in B2B purchasing, distribution and transportation.

  5. Codabar (NW-7)

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (9)

    One of the earlier barcode formats, Codabar codes may include any number and the letters A-D. While no longer a leading type of barcode, certain libraries, blood banks and delivery services still use it.

  6. Interleaved 2 of 5

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (10)

    Interleaved 2 of 5 barcodes use only numbers and contain a high density of bars. The total number of digits must be even, so businesses will sometimes add a zero at the beginning. This type of code is common in warehousing and shipping, and also appears on some employer-issued badges.

  7. QR code

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (11)

    Most people have used QR codes, or are at least familiar with them. Newer versions of smartphones can read these barcodes with their built-in cameras. Toyota invented QR codes in 1994, and today they can be used to direct consumers to a website, confirm a person’s identity on a login page or encrypt data. A QR code can encode more than 7,000 numbers or 4,000 letters.

  8. PDF417

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (12)

    (Video) How to Read Barcodes

    This is a 2D barcode that uses stacked linear rows and consists of anywhere from three to 90 rows. Each row is comparable to a basic linear barcode. You can find PDF417 barcodes on driver’s licenses and other ID cards, as well as in warehouses.

  9. Data matrix

    Behind Barcodes: How They Work (13)

    One other popular type of 2D barcode is data matrix. This barcode can store not just alphanumeric characters, but files. Data matrix barcodes have robust error-checking capabilities, which allows scanners to still read these codes even when they have significant damage. Since the barcode can stand up to tough conditions, it’s often used on surgical tools, circuit boards or electrical rating plates on appliances.

5 Ways to Use Barcodes

There are countless use cases for barcodes, and they can dramatically increase the efficiency and accuracy of your daily operations. Here are a few of their most popular uses:

  1. Tracking inventory:

    Companies need to know not just their current inventory levels, but the location of those products, at all times. Barcodes can resolve that warehouse management issue—warehouse associates scan new items as they arrive and again when they’re shipped out as part of an order; in more automated facilities, mounted scanners might scan products as they move along a conveyor. Every SKU needs a barcode, of course, and codes must be linked to a database that has all the necessary product information. But once that’s set up, inventory numbers will always be reliable and update in real time.

  2. Tracking assets:

    Barcodes are the most popular method for tracking the assets that businesses use to support their daily operations, like machinery, cars and computers. Barcodes, paired with asset tracking software, help businesses monitor the status and location of those assets and store any relevant records about maintenance or repair. This is important because, unlike inventory, organizations often hold onto capital assets for years and use them repetitively. For mobile items like computers or vehicles, barcodes can show who last used those items and when. They also help company leaders understand the usage and condition of different assets as they plan future investments.

  3. Invoicing:

    Many organizations put barcodes on invoices to make it easier to track accounts payable (AP) and accounts receivable (AR). Companies could put barcodes on invoices to tie it to a specific customer. When the customer pays, an employee can scan the barcode to make sure they credit the correct account, and could follow the same process for AP debits. Invoice barcodes can also expedite the fulfillment process. A warehouse worker could print the invoice for an order, then scan the code to figure out which items to pick and where they’re located, reducing the chance for mistakes. Or the worker could scan the barcode after gathering all the items for an order to confirm the package contains all the correct items.

  4. Mail:

    Much like with inventory, businesses can use barcodes to track all the mail and packages they send out. They can scan letters and packages before handing them off to couriers to link tracking information to that order, and then send it to customers so they can check the status of their orders. If mail is returned to the seller, it can scan the barcode to quickly identify the customer it needs to contact to resolve the issue.

  5. Mail Merges:

    A mail merge links a data source, like a spreadsheet, with another document to automatically plug that data into preset fields. Business can use mail merges to create barcodes for a batch of items in a few simple steps. It’s a much more efficient method than handling them one by one.

How to Create Barcodes

Companies that need a small number of barcodes may use a mail merge or a free online tool to generate their barcodes and then print them out with a standard printer. However, this can quickly become inefficient as your needs grow.

A more efficient option is to use your accounting or inventory software to create barcodes—even basic systems generally have this capability and will make it simple to link each barcode to specific item records in your product database. For most businesses, it will make sense to pair this technology with a barcode printer that’s specifically designed to print labels and can cost as little as a few hundred dollars.

However, businesses that need barcodes for external use—for example, to track items sold through a third-party retailer—need to register through GS1. The organization charges an initial fee as well as an annual renewal fee, and pricing varies depending on how many barcodes you need. GS1 will give your company a unique ID, known as a GS1 Company Prefix, which will be part of all your barcodes. This membership also gives you access to the GS1 Data Hub, where you can create and manage your barcodes and export those files to a printer.

GS1 is an international organization and supports UPC and EAN barcodes, as well as different 2D codes.

How Barcodes Help Business

Few technologies have gained such widespread adoption over the last half century as barcodes, and for good reason. They are a simple, effective and extremely reliable way to track inventory, which represents a large chunk of potential revenue and expenses for many companies.

(Video) How Do Barcodes Work?

New businesses or those that don’t yet use barcodes should figure out what type of barcodes best meet their needs and be sure to use and scan them consistently. It’s a small investment that provides a rapid return on investment through improved inventory control and accuracy and access to real-time data. Barcodes play a central role in giving companies the visibility they need to control costs and provide an excellent customer experience.

Barcode Technology

Businesses need just a few pieces of technology to start using barcodes. There are three key components:

  • Printer:

    As noted earlier, you will want a printer designed for barcodes if you have even a few hundred items in your warehouse or replace products regularly. There are a wide range of printers available—some are large and need to be plugged in, while others are wireless and built to be portable. Depending on the size of your operation, you may need multiple printers for different areas of the warehouse or store.

  • Scanner:

    Scanners enable organizations to take advantage of the many benefits barcodes provide. There are a few different types of scanners to choose from: Laser scanners are the most popular because they’re relatively inexpensive, can read codes from up to two feet away and can read most 1D barcodes. Charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanners, which use hundreds of LED lights to read barcodes, are more accurate than laser scanners but have a shorter range. If your company uses 2D barcodes, you’ll need an imager scanner that uses a camera to capture those more-advanced barcodes.

  • Central database:

    Barcodes are useful only if a computer can link those unique identifiers to a certain product. So a company needs a central data source that ties each barcode to a specific product to ensure scanning a barcode renders the right information. This data is often stored within a software application that point-of-sale (POS) systems and warehouse devices can access.

History of Barcodes

Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver came up with the idea for barcodes based on the symbols in Morse code. The two recent graduates of Drexel Institute of Technology, now Drexel University, applied for a patent for the invention in 1949 and received it three years later. Woodland sought the help of his employer, IBM, in building this technology, but IBM felt technological limitations in force at that time would prevent barcodes from catching on.

The founders sold the patent to electronics company Philco in 1962, and Philco later sold it to RCA.

The railroad industry was one of the first to experiment with barcodes in the early 1960s, with a project spearheaded by David Jarrett Collins of electronics company Sylvania. To monitor the movement of railcars, Collins created a colorful barcode that was placed on the side of cars and scanned by a device next to the railroad tracks. Though this was an important first step, the system had some issues, and the Association of American Railroads gave up on it in the late ‘70s. Another early adopter was General Motors, which used barcodes to track transmissions as they moved around a factory.

Barcodes didn’t gain real traction until the mid-70s, when grocery stores started testing them. Around that same time, the National Association of Food Chains (NAFC) standardized barcodes for the industry by developing an 11-digit code. In 1977, there were still only a few hundred supermarkets using barcodes, but by 1980 thousands of stores were adding them every year. Soon, barcodes were standard in not only grocery stores but most retail environments.

Award Winning
Cloud Inventory

Free Product Tour

How Inventory Management Software Can Help

Inventory management software is critical to capitalizing on all the advantages that come with barcodes. This system is a logical place to store all product information, including barcodes, and can serve as the database that feeds information to the computer when someone scans a barcode.

With both barcodes and an inventory management system in place, a company always has a complete and accurate picture of current inventory levels and related metrics. Each time a product is put on or pulled from a shelf, an employee simply scans it, and that scan automatically updates data in the inventory management system. This prevents situations where the organization unexpectedly runs out of stock and misses out on sales for weeks while waiting for a replenishment order to arrive. The solution can also record the location of each SKU, leading to faster fulfillment times and lower labor costs.

(Video) How Does A Barcode Scanner Work?

By using barcodes to update supply chain management software in real time, business leaders always have accurate and current information as they place new purchase orders, choose which items to promote and figure out how to offload slow-moving inventory.

And better purchasing decisions put companies in a position to surpass the competition and grow.


How does a barcode really work? ›

How Do Barcodes Work in the Present Day? The modern-day one-dimensional barcode is read using a scanner. This scanner sends out a laser that detects the pattern. When the laser of a particular frequency sweeps across the barcode, some light is absorbed while the rest reflects.

What is behind a barcode? ›

Barcode stores product related data like the date of manufacturing, expiry date, name of the manufacturer, country of the origin and price quantity of the product. There are two types of barcode one is 1D and other is 2D (2 dimensional). Hemant Singh Updated: Apr 2, 2018 11:07 IST.

What is a barcode reader question answer? ›

A barcode reader (or haseeb) is an optical scanner that can read printed barcodes, decode the data contained in the barcode to a computer. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor for translating optical impulses into electrical signals.

How the barcode system is helpful in the library and how its work? ›

With the help of Barcode technology, library inventory and periodical control can also be carried out effectively and efficiently, users can submit his/her identity cards and the library staffs can scan the Barcode available in the identity card with a Barcode scanner and access the borrowing status.

Why do we use barcodes? ›

Barcodes encode product information into bars and alphanumeric characters, making it much faster and easier to ring up items at a store or track inventory in a warehouse. Besides ease and speed, bar codes' major business benefits include accuracy, inventory control and cost savings.

How do barcodes store information? ›

Barcodes are images expressed as a combination of black bars and white spaces. These combinations represent data that then relays information to a computer or mobile source when scanned. Barcodes can include numbers, letters, and characters as a means of further identification.

What is barcode in simple words? ›

A barcode, consisting of bars and spaces, is a machine-readable representation of numerals and characters. Today, stripes as shown below on packages of products sold at supermarkets, convenience stores and other stores are ubiquitous. These are barcodes.

What are barcodes called? ›

UPC-A. The UPC-A (also referred to simply as the UPC) is the standard retail “price code” barcode in the United States.

How much information can a barcode hold? ›

The maximum data limit is 1556 bytes. Error correction is built into these barcodes to increase readability, so even if one or more cells are damaged, the data can still be read. A Data Matrix barcode can store up to 2,335 alphanumeric characters.

What method is used to read a barcode? ›

CCD method

This method uses a semiconductor device called CCD(Charge Coupled Device), which converts light signals into electric signals. The CCD method bar code scanner has a built-in light. A scanner shines this light at a bar code and its reflection is captured via CCD for reading.

How can we read barcode lines? ›

The first six numbers of the barcode is the manufacturer's identification number. The next five digits represent the item's number. The last number is called a check digit which enables the scanner to determine if the barcode was scanned correctly.

How many types of barcode readers are there? ›

There are five main types of barcode readers. These are pen wands, slot scanners, Charge-Couple Device (CCD) scanners, image scanners, and laser scanners.

Why barcode on a book makes it easier for the library? ›

Q: What is the benefit of using barcodes throughout our library? A: The use of barcodes will lead to reduced staff workload, increased accuracy, improved circulation capabilities, faster check-in and check-out, easier sorting and inventory management.

What is barcode technology? ›

barcode, a printed series of parallel bars or lines of varying width that is used for entering data into a computer system. The bars are typically black on a white background, and their width and quantity vary according to application.

How do you barcode a library book? ›

In order to establish a library barcode system, a unique item number must be assigned to each circulation item, and a corresponding barcode must be placed somewhere on each item's surface or interior. The barcode is essentially a visual representation of the item number, which can be read electronically by a scanner.

Where are barcodes mostly used? ›

Barcoding originated in grocery stores and has since extended to use in doctors offices, law firms, post offices, retail stores, security applications, car rental returns and countless others.

Where are barcodes used? ›

Barcodes are applied to products to quickly identify them. Among their many uses, barcodes are typically used in retail stores as a part of the purchasing process, in warehouses to track and manage inventory and on invoices to help with accounting.

Are all barcodes unique? ›

Each barcode is unique to the product that it represents. There are many different types of barcodes but the two types that are standard in retail are UPC and EAN.

How many lines does a barcode have? ›

Discrete barcodes

In this barcode, each digit is encoded using: three narrow lines, a single wide line, two narrow gaps, and a single wide gap. For each digit, these lines and gaps are placed in a different order.

How long can barcodes be? ›

Depending on the specific barcode type, 1D barcodes can have from 20-25 characters while 2D codes go up to 2,000 characters. The main practical concern is that as you increase the amount of information in the barcode the bigger it will become.

Can you edit a barcode? ›

To make any changes, select your barcode. Click "Edit Barcode" in the bottom right-hand corner to edit the barcode type, data, or appearance. You can also edit the opacity of your barcode in the "Object Properties" panel to the left of the screen.

How do barcodes set off alarms? ›

In contrast, all barcodes do not trigger an alarm. What triggers the alarm is the magnet. However, magnets are usually placed near the barcode so the cashier knows and can deactivate the magnet simply by scanning the item. That makes many people mistakenly think that unscanned barcodes set off alarms.

What do the numbers in a barcode mean? ›

The first six numbers of the barcode is the manufacturer's identification number. The next five digits represent the item's number. The last number is called a check digit which enables the scanner to determine if the barcode was scanned correctly.

What is the difference between QR code and barcode? ›

Barcodes are based on Morse Code technology. QR codes are based on Morse Code technology. Barcode has less data storage. QR code has more data storage as compared to the Barcode.

Can a barcode scanner read text? ›

A barcode scanner reads input and returns text. It is done by converting the barcode to text using the scanning software. There are apps available in Microsoft Store , Play store , App Store etc.. that can scan both barcode and qr code.

How do stores detect shoplifting? ›

Anti-shoplifting alarms use a technology called RF (radio-frequency), while a similar (but more advanced) technology called RFID (radio-frequency identification) has many other uses, from tracking pets and public library stocktaking to collecting fares from bus passengers.

Can a barcode tell if something was stolen? ›

The barcode does nothing in terms of security and its only purpose is to tell the Point Of Sales system what item it is.

Why does the alarm go off when I walk into a store? ›

If you didn't steal anything and the alarm goes off, that means you're carrying or wearing an item with a security tag that somehow didn't get deactivated by a cashier. Anti-theft systems have been around for decades, and can only be set off by a live tag—not your smart phone, or anything like that.

What data is in a barcode? ›

Barcodes typically store product information such as price and weight, date of manufacture, expiration date, and the manufacturer's name.

Can 2 products have the same barcode? ›

Are barcodes unique to each item? Stores need individual barcodes for each product, not each individual item. Otherwise, you may find yourself in a confusing mess when it comes to product distribution, inventory management, and sales tracking.

How many types of barcodes are there? ›

Barcodes are available in two different types: Linear barcodes and two-dimensional matrix barcodes.

How much data can a barcode hold? ›

The maximum data limit is 1556 bytes. Error correction is built into these barcodes to increase readability, so even if one or more cells are damaged, the data can still be read. A Data Matrix barcode can store up to 2,335 alphanumeric characters.

How do you read barcodes? ›

How to Read Barcodes - YouTube

Who invented barcode? ›

The barcode was invented by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver and patented in the US in 1952. The invention was based on Morse code that was extended to thin and thick bars. However, it took over twenty years before this invention became commercially successful.

What part of the barcode is scanned? ›

In general, a barcode scanner “scans” the black and white elements of a barcode by illuminating the code with a red light, which is then converted into matching text.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of barcode reader? ›

Barcodes have no read/write capabilities; they do not contain any added information such as expiry date etc. They only contain the manufacturer and product. They are very labour intensive; as they must be scanned individually. Barcodes have less security than RFID; as they can be more easily reproduced or forged.

What type of device is a barcode scanner? ›

A Barcode reader or Barcode scanner is an electronic input device which is able to scan and decode barcodes. These devices use optical technology such as infrared light. Some readers use an integrated decoder, others have one unit for reading the barcode, and another one to decode the barcode.


1. How Do Barcodes Work | Earth Lab
(BBC Earth Lab)
2. What's Inside a Barcode Reader (or Scanner) and How Does It Work?
3. How does a Barcode Scanner Work?
(Code Corporation)
4. How does a barcode scanner works? | ML
(AI Sciences)
5. How do barcodes work? #technology #programming #explained
(Coding with Lewis)
6. Barcodes & QR Codes Explained | How they Work?
(Technical Guruji)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Jonah Leffler

Last Updated: 10/26/2022

Views: 6423

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (45 voted)

Reviews: 84% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Jonah Leffler

Birthday: 1997-10-27

Address: 8987 Kieth Ports, Luettgenland, CT 54657-9808

Phone: +2611128251586

Job: Mining Supervisor

Hobby: Worldbuilding, Electronics, Amateur radio, Skiing, Cycling, Jogging, Taxidermy

Introduction: My name is Jonah Leffler, I am a determined, faithful, outstanding, inexpensive, cheerful, determined, smiling person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.